Barrett, Terry

Criticising photographs, an introduction to understanding images. 5th ed.

Barrett, Terry (2012) Criticising photographs, an introduction to understanding images. 5th ed. NY: McGraw Hill.


Contents

Chapter 1 About Art Criticism 
Definition of Criticism 
Sources of Criticism 
Kinds of Criticism 
The Backgrounds of Critics 
Stances Toward Criticism 
Relations Between Critics and Artists 
The Art of Criticizing Criticism 
The Value of Criticism 14

Chapter 2 Describing Photographs: What Do I See? 
Defining Description 
Describing an Exhibition: Avedon’s “In the American West” 
Describing Subject Matter 
Describing Form 
Describing Medium 
Describing Style 
Comparing and Contrasting 
Identifying Internal and External Sources of Information 
Describing and Interpreting 
Describing and Evaluating 
The Importance of Description to Readers 
Principles for Describing Photographs

Chapter 3 Interpreting Photographs: What Does It Mean? 
Two Exemplary Interpretations 
About Interpretation 
Definition of Interpretation 
The Objects of Interpretations 
Interpretive Claims and Arguments 
Interpretive Perspectives 
Three Interpretations of Eleanor 
Other Interpretive Strategies 
Combinations of Interpretive Approaches 
“Right” Interpretations 
Interpretations and the Artist’s Intent 
Interpretations and Feelings 
Interpretation, Meaning, and Personal Significance 
The Community of Interpreters

Chapter 4 Types of Photographs 
Categories of Photographs 
New Categories 
Descriptive Photographs 
Explanatory Photographs 
Interpretive Photographs 
Ethically Evaluative Photographs 
Aesthetically Evaluative Photographs 
Theoretical Photographs

Chapter 5 Photographs and Contexts 
Internal Context 
Original Context 
External Context 
External Contexts and Connotations 
Interpretation of Barbara Kruger’s Untitled (“Surveillance”) with Contextual Information 
“Surveillance” and Internal Context 
“Surve llance” and Original Context 
“Surveillance” and External Context 
Barbara Kruger’s Untitled (“Surveillance”) and the Categories 
Descriptive Photographs 
Explanatory Photographs 
Interpretive Photographs 
Ethically Evaluative Photographs 
Aesthetically Evaluative Photographs 
Theoretical Photographs 

The Interpretive Process : A Summary

Chapter 6 Judging Photographs: Is It Good? 
Examples of Judgmental Statements 
Positive Judgments 
Negative Judgments 
Implied Judgments 
Opposing Judgments 
Comparative Judgments 
Judgments and Reasons 
Judgments and Criteria 
Different Criteria 
Realism 
Expressionism 
Formalism 
Activism 
Other Criteria 
Choosing Among Criteria 
Differing Judgments 
Judgments Are Arguments 
Reappraisals 
Judgments and Preferences 
lntentionalism andJudgments 
The Objects of Judgments 
Judgments of Robert Mapplethorpe’s Photographs 
Hilton Kramer’s and Grace Glueck’s Views of Mapplethorpe’s Work 
Other Critics’ Views of Mapplethorpe’s Work 149

Conclusion 
Principles for Judging Photographs

Chapter 7 Photography Theory: Is It Art? Is It True? Is It Moral? 
Photography Theory and Practice 
Ontological Concerns: What ls a Photograph? 
Digital Images and Ontology 
Epistemological Concerns: Are Photographs True? 
Realist Theory 
Conventionalist Theory 
Photographic Truth 
Aesthetic Concerns: ls Photography Art? 
Modernism and Postmodernism 
Digital Images and Aesthetic Concerns 

Ethical Concerns: Are Photographs Moral? 
Marxist Theory and Ethical Photography 
Feminist Theory and Ethical Photography 
Multicultural Theory and Ethical Photography 
Queer Theory and Ethical Photography 
Postcolonial Theory and Ethical Photography 
Conclusion

Chapter 8 Writing and Talking About Photographs 
Writing About Photographs 
Observing and Taking Notes 
Quick-Writes and Careful-Writes 
Students’ Interpretive Writings 
Building Visual Interpretations 
Making Personal Meaning 
Judging Photographs 
Writing Criteria Statements 
Four Student Views of Immediate Family by Sally Mann 
Writing Metacritically 
Writing Artists’ Statements 
Processes of Writing
Talking About Photographs 
Studio Critiques 
Kinds of Critiques 
Conducting Successful Critiques 
Principles for Effective Critiques

Notes 
Bibliography 
Index


Index A-D

Abu Ghraib prison, 168-169
Acconci, Vito, 179
active voice, 245
activism, 138-139
ACT-UP (AlDS Coalition to Unleash Power), 207
Adams, Ansel, 68, 136, 138, 167, 179, 187; Moonrise, Hemandez, New Mexico, 176
Adorno, Theodor, 115
Adrian, Dennis, 13
aesthetically evaluative photographs, 95-98, 123
aesthetics
definition of, 160
digital images and, 191-194
theory and, 177-194
Afterimage (journal), 8, 9, 26, 180
AIDS, 139,195,207
AIDS: The Artists’ Response (Grover & Molnar), 138
Aletti, Vince, 91
Alexander, Vikky, 121, 200
Algeria, 212
Alloway, Lawrence, 13
Al Pacino, New Yorh City (Davidson), 95
alteration, of digital images, 162-164
American Photography (Green), 4, 55, 72, 130
American Photo (journal), 195
Americans, The (Frank), 37
American tourists photographing children (van der Elsken), 211
Amon Carter Museum, 38
Amos Coal Power Plant, Raymond City, West Virginia (Epstein), 39, Colar Plate 2
Amy, Michael, 74
Amy (Opie), 206
analog manipulations, 175-176
Anderson, Christopher, 98, Color Plate 22
Andre, Linda, 58-59
Antoni,Janine, Inhabit, 84, 85
Aperture (journal), 5, 83, 87, 187
applied criticism, 7
Arago, Dominique François, 160, 165
Arbus, Diane, 37, ll5, 130,133,178
archetypal interpretation, 55
argumentative aesthetic criticism, 6 arguments
interpretive, 52-53
judgments as, 141-142
Aristotle, 134; Poetics, 182
Arm Envy. With Alexander Edwards and Fay Ray (Wegman), 221
Arruda, Sarah, 217,219
Artforum (journal), 2, 5, 8, 25, 120
Art in America, 5, 8, 34, 74, ll9, 129, 149
Art in America (journal), 7
artists, critics and, ll-12
Artists Meeting for Cultural Change, ll5
artists’ statements, 240-243
Artnet, 239
Artnews, 22, 25, ll9-121
Artweek (journal), 5
Ashton, Dore, 13
Atkins, Robert, 139
At the Cafe., Chez Fraysse, Rue de Seine, Paris (Doisneau), 109, 110
Attracted to Light (Starn & Starn), 35
Avedon, Richard, 18-23, 25, 34, 36, 37, 58-59, 130,187; Boyd Fortin, Thirteen Year Old Rattlesnake Skinner, Sweetwater, Texas, 19; “In the American West,” 18-23, 19, 130, 159,202; “Unidentified Migrant Worker,” 202
“Avedon Goes West” (Weiley), 22
Aven, 159

Baartman, Saarjite, 212
Baldessari, John, 120,180,190
Ballen, Roger, 258
Baltz, Lewis, 179
Barrett, Susan Michael, 219-220
Barrymore, Drew, 164
Barth, Uta, 35
Barthes, Roland, 49-50, 58, 111, 115, 121, 179,186; Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. 7, 161,168,182; Name of the Rose, The,28
Batchen, Geoffrey, 170, 182;Burning with Desire, 7 
Bathers, The (Williams), 16-17, 17
Baudrillard,Jean, 179, 190
Beardsley, Monroe, 61
Becher, Bernd, 70, 103, 179, 190
Becher, Hilla, 70, 103, 179, 190
Bell, Clive, 137
Benjamin, Walter, 112, 115, 121, 179; “Short History of Photography, A,” 190; “Work of An in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, The,” 190
Benviniste, Emile, 121.
Berger,John, 166,238
Berger, Paul, 101, 103
Berman, Nina, Marine Wedding. Sergeant Ty Ziegel and Renee Kline,94, Color Plate 17
Berman, Zeke, 100
Beshty, Walead, 103; Three Color Curl CMY!Four Magnet, Irvine, California, January 3rd 2010, Color Plate 29
Beveridge, Karl, 197
Billingham, Richard, 238
biographical interpretation, 59

Bitches, Bimbos, and Ballbreakers: The Guerilla Girl’s Guide to Female Stereotypes (Guerilla Girls), 199
Black Bathroom (Simmons), Color Plate 32
Black Book (Mapplethorpe), 204
Blake,Jeremy, 191
Bleckman, Ericka, 115
Bleckner, Ross, 115
Bloom, Barbara, 115
Bochner, Mel, 179
Bolton, Richard, 26
Bowden, Charles, 258
Boyd Fortin, Thirteen Year Old Rattlesnahe Shinner, Sweetwater, Texas (Avedon), 19
Braque, Georges, 178
Brecht, Bertolt, 121
Brenson, Michael, 26
Brigman, Anne, Heart of the Stonn, The, 136
Broudy, Harry, 4
Brower, Kenneth, 175
Bryant, Edward, 52
Buchloch, Benjamin, 91
Burgin, Victor, 120, 157, 190, 197
Burning with Desire (Batchen), 7
Burtynsky, Edward, 93
Dam #6, Three Gorges Dam Project, Yangtze River, Color Plate 14

Cagan, Steve, 197
Calas, Nicolas, 13
Caley, Shaun, 120
California Conceptualism, 98
Callahan, Harry, Eleanor, Port Huron, 1954, 53-56,54
Camera 35 (journal), 8
Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography (Barthes), 7, 161, 168, 182
Camera Worh (journal), 180
Cameron.Julia Margaret, 107
Campos-Pons, Maria Magdalana, Identity Could Be a Tragedy, 222, 223
Candy Cigarette (Mann), 231
“Canyon de Chelly ” (Friedlander), 247
Caponigro, Paul, 178
Carnival Strippers (Meiselas), 79
Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 128, 133, 158, 178
Casebere,James, 100; Landscape with Houses (Dutchess County, NY),Color Plate 26
cassini (Ruff, 101-102, Color Plate 27
categories, of photographs, 68-72
Catlin, George, 29
CCDs. See charge-coupled devices (CCDs)
censorship, 176-177
Chapin, Schuyler, 146
charge-coupled devices (CCDs), 172
Charlesworth, Sarah, 129, 180, 190
Text, 99, 100
Cheng Yu Yang, Numen, 79, 80
Cherry, Deborah, 200
Chris, Cynthia, 29, 38, 40
Christ in New York (Michals), 133
Christ with Mary and Saint (Day), 175
Cindy Sherman 1975-1993 (Krauss), 4
claims, interpretive, 52-53
Clark, Ossie, 191
Clinton, Hillary, 128
Close, Chuck, 251
Coburn, Alvin, 137
Cocaine Blue, Cocaine True (Richards), 247
Cohen,Lynne,97-98; Untitled (Red Door), Color Plate 21
Coke, Van Deren, 29, 31, 38, 59
Coleman, A. D., 3, 10, 11 , 15, 38, 83, 166; Critical Focus, 8; “Directorial Mode, The: Notes Toward a Definition,” 157; Light Readings, 8
Collins, Lauren, 164
colonialism, 209
community, of interpreters, 66
comparative interpretation, 55
comparative judgments, 131
comparing, 37
Conde, Carole, 197
Confessions of an Advertising Man(Ogilvy), 167
Congo, 212
“Connoisseurship,” 7
connotations, 111-113
Constrncted Realities: The Art of Staged Photography (Kohler), 188
context
connoration and, 111-113
external, 108-113, 118-121
internal, 105-106, 113-115
original, 106-108, 115-118
contrasting, 3 7
conventionalist theory, 169-171
Coplans, John, 156, 158
Corry, John, 143
Cosman, Scott, 195
Cotter, Holand, 204
Cottingham, Laura, 201
Courbet in Rejlander’s Pool (Witkin), 29
Cox, Renee, 212; HOT-EN-TOT, 213
“Crawl” (Gall), 83
credibility, 166-169
Crewdson, Gregory, 35, 86, 193;Untitled, Winter, 194
Crimp, Douglas, 183

criteria,judgments and, 132-134
criteria statements, 228-229
Critical Focus (Coleman), 8
criticism applied, 7
argumentative aesthetic, 6
connotations of, 1
criticism of, 12-14
definition of, 2-4
discourse in, 3
exploratory aesthetic, 6
informed, 3
judgment vs., 127
revisionist, 142
sources of, 4-6
stances toward, 9-11
theoretical, 7
theory and, 156-157
types of, 6-7
value of, 14-15
critics, 1-2
artists and, 11-12
backgrounds of, 8-9
critiques, studio, 250-269
definition of, 250-251
descriptive, 262
intentionalist, 260-262
interpretive, 263
judgmental, 263-265
principles of, 269
successful, 266-269
theoretical, 265-266
types of, 260-266
without advice, 266
cultural imperialism, 209
Cumming, Robert, 179
Cunningham, Imagen, 138, 187
Curtis, Edward, 77; North American Indian, The, 37

Daguerre, Louis, 170-171
Dam #6, Three Gorges Dam Project, Yangtze River (Burtynsky), Colar Plate 14
Dance!!!!! (Graham), 84, 86, Colar Plate 7
Dangin, Pascal, 163, 164
Danco, Arthur, 4, 28, 130, 152Transfiguration of the Commonplace: A Philosophy of Art,182
Davidson, Bruce, Al Pacino, New York City, 95
Davis, Ben, 239
Davis, Douglas, 18-23, 25, 34, 37, 133, 159
Day, F. Holland, 84, 137; Christ with Mary and Saint, 175
Daybooks, The (Weston), 65
Day-to-Day Life of Albert Hastings(Deveney), Colar Plate 3
Dead Animals #79 (Misrach), Color Plate 31
Dead Troops Talk (A vision after an ambush of a Red Army Patrol, near Moqor, Afghanistan, winter 1986)(Wall), 43-45, 44
Debord, Guy, 190
DeCarava, Roy, 197
Deckel, Zeev, 255
Deerslayer, The (Krims), 144
Degas, Edgar, 178
DeGenevieve, Barbara, 198
de Laurentis, Teresa, 205, 207
Demand, Thomas, 103; Presidency I, Color Plate 28
Demarchelier, Patrick,163
Denver Post (newspaper), 175
Derrida, Jacques, 185, 186, 205
Descartes, Rene, 186
description
definition of, 17-18
evaluation and, 40-41
of exhibition, 18-23
of form, 31-33
importance of, to readers, 41
information in, 18
interpretation and, 39-40
of medium, 33-36
principles of, 41-42
of style, 36
of subject matter, 23-31
descriptive critiques, 262
descriptive photographs, 72-76, 121-122
Desmarais, Charles, 183
Deveney,Kaylynn, 79; Day-to-Day Life of Albert Hastings, Color Plate 3
Devine, Dan, 58
Dialogue (journal), 5, 12
Diaz, Cameron, 195
Dickey, George, 180
diCorcia, Philip-Lorca, 87, 164;Untitled (Rabbi), Color Plate 11
digital images
aesthetic concerns and, 191-194
ontology and, 162-165
truth and, 171-175
DiMarco, Paul, 228
“Directorial Mode, The: Notes Toward a Definition” (Coleman), 157
DiRenzo, Morgan, 231-232
Dirty Jesse (Mann), 232
DIVA TV (Damned Interfering Video Activist Television), 207
Doisneau, Robert; At the Cafe, Chez Fraysse, Rue de Seine, Paris, 109, 110
Dream Amsterdam (Tunick), 24
Drier, Deborah, 132
Duchamp, Marcel, 178
Dunham, Carroll, 246 
Dyer, Richard, 201-202


E-L

Eastman Kodak Company, 73 
Eauclaire, Sally, 51; New Color Photography, The, 4, 69 
Eco, Umberto, 262 
Edgerton, Harold, 77 
education, theory and, 158 
Edwards, Owen, 131, 156 
Edward (wilh Prayer Beads)(Grannan), 82
Eleanor, Port Huron, 1954 (Callahan), 53-56, 54 
emotions, interpretation and, 65 
epistemology
conventionalist theory and, 169-171
credibility and, 166-169 
definition of, 160 
persuasiveness and, 166-169
theory and, 165-177 
truth and, 171-177 
Epstein, Mitch, Amos Coal Power Plant, Raymond City, West Virginia, 39, Color Plate 2
Equisetum (Wagner), 96, 97 
ethically evaluative photographs, 89-95, 122-123
ethics, 194-212 
evaluation, description and, 40-41 
Evans, Frederick, 137 
Evans, Harold, 177 
Evans, Walker, 100, 106, 178 
Ewald, Wendy, 91; Gerdien’s Portrait, 90
exhibition, description of, 18-23 
explanatory photographs, 77-83, 122 
Exploding into Life (Richards), 247
exploratory aesthetic criticism, 6 
Exposure (journal), 5, 29 
expressionism, 136-137 
external context, 108-113, 118-121 
external sources of information, 37-39

Fabricalions: Staged, Altered, and Appropriated Photographs (Hoy), 69, 120-121 
Falkland Road (Mark), 80, Color Plate 4
Famighetti, Michael, 256 
“Family of Man, The” (exhibition), 142,203
Fastforward (Greenfield), 78 
Feck,Candace,229 
feelings, interpretation and, 65 
Feingold, Michael, 2, 3, 12 
feminist interpretation, 55-56 
feminist theory, 197-201 
Film Stills (Sherman), 4 
Fink, Larry, 128, 129
Firstenberg, Lauri, Only Skin Deep: Changing Visions of the American Self, 159 
Fischer, Hal, 29, 34, 40 
Fischl, Eric, 115 
Fisher, Jean, 120 
Fish Story (Sekula), 91 
Flash Arts (journal), 120 
Folberg, Neil; Serpent’s Chronicle,86; Was he the First to Lose a Diamond?, Color Plate 9
Fonda, Jane, 174 
form, description of, 31-33 
formalism, 137-138 
formalist interpretation, 58 
Foster, Hal, 119, 121 
Foucault, Michel, 7,121,170,179,185,205
Frank, Robert, 178; Americans, The, 37 
Franklin, Stuart, 177 
Freud, Sigmund, 121. See also psychoanalytic interpretation 
Freund, Gisele, 109, 167 

Fried, Michael, 39 Friedlander, Lee, 6, 135, 178, 247; “Canyon de Chelly,” 247; “Oregon,” 247 
Frog I Frog II. With Man Ray (Wegman), 221 
Fry, Roger, 137 
Fusco, Coco, 202 
Fuss, Adam, Untitled, 161

Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 139-140 
Gage,Jenny, 237 
Galassi, Peter, 87 
Gall, Sally; “Crawl,” 83; Study for a Roman Fresco, Col or Plate 6 
Gardner, Alexander, 183 
Gaskell, Anna, 237 
Gauss, Kathleen McCarthy, 58 
gays, 204-209 
Geography Lesson: Canadian Notes(Sekula), 91
Gerdien’s Portrait (Ewald & van Anen), 90
Gerlovin, Valeriy, 87, 158; Mini Lab, Color Plate 12
Gerlovina, Rimma, 87, 158; Mini Lab, Color Plate 12 
Ghadirian, Shadi, Like Everybody, 94, Color Plate 16 
Giacolone,Jean, 222 
Gildersleeve, Freel A., 203 
Girl Culture (Greenfield), 60, 78, 198 
Gitlin, Todd, 185-186 
Gitto, Paul, Messier Grid Map, 172, 173 
Glier, Mike, 119 
Glota, Gerald, 93 
Glueck, Grace, 5, 9, 12, 146-149 
Gold, Frances Joslin, “Instant Decorator, The,” 246 
Goldberg, Vicki, 87 
Goldin, Amy, 131 
Goldin, Nan, 7, 195, 237 ; Jabalowe under His Mosquito Net, Color Plate 5; Other Side, The, 80-81 
Goldman, Ronald, 174 
Gombrich, Ernst, 48, 170 
Goodman, Nelson, 48, 170 
Gould, Daniel, 73 
Gowin, Edith, 55 
Gowin, Emmit, 158 
Goya, 31 
Graham, Dan, 179, 190 
Graham, Rodney, Dance!!!!!, 84, 86, Coler Plate 7; Gran Fury, 207 
Grannan, Katy, 82-83, 237 Edward (with Prayer Beads), 82
Grant, Annette, 35 
Green,Jonathan, 51-52; American Photography, 4, 55, 72, 130

Greenfield, Lauren, 77-78Fastforward, 78 Girl Culture, 60, 78 Thin, 78, 78, 198
Groover,Jan, 26, 32, 32-35, 96;Untitled, 32 
Group f/64, 138 
Grover,Jan Zita, 189; AIDS: The Artists’ Response, 138
Grundberg,Andy,4, 7,48, 70,150,152, 156-157, 166,178,179
Guergilla Girl, 197-200; Bitches, Bimbos, and Ballbrealiers: The Guerilla Girl’s Guide to Female Stereotypes, 199 
Gulf War, 177 
Gursky, Andreas, Stockholder Meeting, Diptych, 192
Gyahtei #17 (Yamanaka), 73-75, 75 
Gyre (Jordan), 94, Color Plate 15

Haacke, Hans, 120, 179 
Hagen, Charles, 135 
Halperin, David, 207 
Hampton Project, The (Weems), 222, 224-225 
Hare, Chauncey, 196 
Haring, Keith, 119 
Harris, Melissa, 255 
Hartmann, Sadakichi, 67, 135 
Hastings, Albert, 79 
Hatch, Connie, 197 
Hatch, H. M., 203 
Hayhook (Mann), 231, 233 
Heartfield,John, 120 
Heartney, Eleanor, 26, 180 
Heart of the Storm, The (Brigman), 136
Heidegger, Martin, 234 
Heifennan, Marvin, 142 
Heinecken, Robert, 130, 132 
Henson, Cary, 210 
Hephaestus (Mann), 56, 57 
Hermsen, Terry, 234-235 
Hess, Elizabeth, 80-81 
He stood there in the shadows (Michals), Color Plate 8 
Hickey, Dave, 100 
Hine, Lewis, 112,150,167,183,197 
Hip Hop Project, The (Lee), 236, 236-240
Hirak, Charles, 236-239 
History of Photography, The (Newhall), 67-68 
History of Women Photographers, A(Rosenblum), 200 
Hockney, David, 180, 183 
Hoey, Dana, 237 
Hokusai, 94 
Hollywood Wives (film), 143 
Holzer,Jenny, 119 
homosexuality, 204-209 
HOT-EN-TOT (Cox), 213 
Hottentot Venus, 212 
Hovey, Kendra, 220-221, 229 
Howard, Richard, 152 
Hoy, Anne, 56, 59; Fabrications: Staged, Altered, and Appropriated Photographs, 69, 120-121 
Hudson Review, 14 
Huebler, Douglas, 179 
Hughes, C. Jabez, 67, 136 
Hughes, Robert, 5, 6, 8, 14 
Hugunin,James, 186, 197

Identity Could Be a Tragedy(Campos-Pons), 222,223 
image processing, 172 
Immediate Family (Mann), 229-235, 230 
implied judgments, 130 
information, sources of, 37-39 
Inhabit (Antoni), 84, 85 
In Response to Place (Nature Conservatory), 4 
“Instant Decorator, The” (Gold), 246
intent, interpretation and, 62-65 

intentionalism, judgments and, 143-144 
intentionalist critiques, 260-262
intentionalist fallacy, 261 
intentionalist interpretation, 59-60, 63 
internal context, 105-106, 113-115 
internal sources of information, 3 7-39 
interpretation 
archetypal, 55 
arguments in, 52-53 
artist’s intent and, 62-65
biographical, 59 
claims in, 52-53 
combined approaches to, 60-61 
community of, 66 
comparative, 55 
definition of, 48-50 
description and, 39-40
examples of, 43-46 
feelings and, 65 
feminist, 55-56 
formalist, 58 
intentionalist, 59-60, 63
Marxist, 58-59 
meaning and, 65-66 
objects of, 50-52 
overview of, 47-48
perspectives in, 53-61 
principles of,
125-126 psychoanalytic, 56 
questions in, 4 7 
“right,” 61-62 
semiotic, 58 
significance and, 65-66
stylistic, 59 
technique-based, 60 
interpretive critiques, 263 
interpretive photographs, 83-89 
interpretive writings, of students, 220-221 
“In the American West” (Avedon), 18-23, 19, 130,159,202 
Intirely (Wegman), 217,218, 219-220 
Ischar, Doug, 153 
“It’s Art, but ls It Photography?” (Woodward), 183

Jaar, Alfredo, 89, 89
Jabalowe under His Mosquito Net (Goldin) Color Plate 5
Jackson, William Henry, 37

Jacobson, Colin, Underexposed: Censored Pictures and Hidden History, 174, 176-177,2 56
Jakobson, Roman, 121
Jarecke, Kenneth, 161, 177
Jenkins, Nicholas,1 4,92-93
Jessie at 5 (Mann),230, 233
Johnson, Rashid, 33
Johnston, Frances Benjamin,2 22,2 24-225
Jordan, Chris, Gyre, 94,Color Plate 15
Jordan,Jim, 35, 40
Journal of Aesthetic Education, 6 
judgment(s)
activism and, 138-139
as arguments, 141-142
choosing criteria for,140-141
comparative, 131
criteria and, 132-134
criticism vs., 127
differing, 141
examples of, 1 28-131,1 44-153
expressionism and, 136-137
formalism and, 137-138
implied, 130
intentionalism and, 143-144
negative, 130
objects of, 144
opposing, 130-131
positive, 128-129
preferences and, 142-143
principles of, 154
realism and, 134-136
reappraisals and, 142
reasons and, 131-132
writing and, 225-228
judgmental critiques, 2 63-265
Jungle Roots (Kuhn),Color Plate 19
Jussim, Estelle, 69

Kaplan, Louis, 7, 182
Kasebier, Gertrnde, 84, 137
Kennedy,Randy,98
Kerry,John, 174
Ketchum, Ami “White,” 203 
Kirnmelman, Michael, 8 ,139
Kingdom (ParkeHarrison), 88
Kismaric, Susan,32-33, 34
Kiss Goodnight (Mann), 233
Klett, Mark, 97; View fro the tent at P1yamid Lake, Nevada, Color Plate 20
Knight, Christopher, 2 ,11-12
Koch, Stephen, 149-150
Kohler, Michael, 189; Constructed Realities: The Art of Staged Photography, 188
Kolbowski, Silvia, 200
Kopolos,Janet, 129
Kosuth,Joseph, 179
Kotz, Liz, 103
Koudelka, Josef, Untitled, 51 
Kozloff, Max, 181
Kramer, Hilton,121 30-133,135,146-149,1 59
Krauss, Rosalind, Cindy Sherman1975-1993, 4 
Krims, Les; Deerslayer, The, 144;Making Chicken Soup, 106 
Kruger, Barbara, 8 , 158,180,185, 190; Remote Control: Power, Cultures, and the World of Appearances, 4; Survei1lance, 113-124, 114; Untitled, 1981, 116;Untitled, 1983, 116; Untitled (Thinking of You), Color Plate 30
Kuhn, Mona; Jungle Roots, Color Plate 19; Portfolio Brazil, 96
Kundu, Rina, 232-234
Kurdista11 (Meiselas), 79
Kurland.Justin, 237
Kuspit, Donald, 13, 56

laBute, Neil, 93; sister, Coler Plate 13
Lacan,Jacques, 121, 186
“Lament on the Images ” (Strauss&: Jaar), 89,8 9
Landscape as Photograph (Lindquist-Cock), 69

Landscape with Houses (Dutchess County, NY) (Casebere), Color Plate 26 
Lange, Dorothea, 136
LAPIT (Lesbian Activists Producing Interesting Television), 207
Larson, Kay, 5-6,9,1 1,149 
Larson, Nate, Potato Manifestation, 241, 241-242 
Lascaux caves, 73
Lawler, Louise, 190
Lee, Nikki S., Hip Hop Project, The, 236, 236-240
Leffingwell, Edward, 7, 
Leibovitz, Annie, 158, 164
Leopard Sunning by Air Vent (Wilson), 243,244
Le Point (magazine), 109
lesbians, 204-209
Letinsky, Laura, 96; Untitled, I did not remember I had forgotten (#54), Color Plate 18
Levine, Sherrie, 100, 116,1 21, 180,1 90 
Levi-Strauss, Claude, 186
LeWitt, Sol, 179
Life Library of Photography,6 9
Life (magazine), 134-135, 167 
Light Readings (Coleman), 8
Ligon, Glen, 159 Like Everyday(Ghadirian), 94, Color Plate 16
Lindquist-Cock, Elizabeth,Landscape as Photograph, 69
Linker, Kate, 100, 129
Lippard, Lucy, 2, 10-11, 12, 38, 200

Lister, Manin, 164
Little Fur, The (Witkin), 31
Living Desert, The (film), 176
Lolita, With Battina (Wegman), 220
London Observer (newspaper), 177
Lonidier, Fred, 196, 197
Looking at Photographs: 1OO Pictures from the Collection of the Museum of Modem Art (Szarkowski), 109
Lopate, Philip, 83
Los Angeles Times, 2 
Luce, Henry R., 134-135 
Lucid, Geraldine, 35 
Lyotard,Jean-François, 184


M-R

MacCrellish, Frederick, 77
Magnum, 98
Making Chichen Soup (Krims), 106
Mandan (Witkin), 29
Man in Polyester Suit(Mapplethorpe), 145, 149, 159-160
Mann, Sally, 158; Candy Cigarette, 231; Dirty Jesse, 232; Hayhook, 231, 233; Hephaestus, 56, 57; Immediate Family, 229-235, 230; Jessie at 5, 230, 233; Kiss Goodnight, 233; Night-blooming Cereus, 233; Popsicle Drips, 231, 233; “Proud Flesh,” 56; Sunday Funnies, 233;Terrible Picture, 233; Virginia at 3, 231
Mapplethorpe, Robert, 4, 158, 159, 161, 180, 227-228; Black Book, 204;Man in Polyester Suit, 145, 159-160;Perfect Moment, The, 226; “Perfect Moment, The,” 144-153; Raymond, 151; Self-Portrait, 227 Marder, Mallerie, 237: Margolis,]oseph, 61 
Marine Wedding. Sergeant Ty Ziegel and Renee Kline (Berman), 94, Color Plate 17
Mark, Mary Ellen, 16-17, 51, 79-8O; Falkland Road, 80, Color Plate 4
Martin, Walter, 256; “Travelers,” 87, Color Plate 10
Marxist interpretation, 58-59
Marxist realism, 197
Marxist theory, 196-197
Masheck,]oseph, 13
Matadin, Yinoodh, 164 
Matta-Clark, Gordon, 179
Matted (Diptych) With Fay Ray (Wegman), 221
Mayer, Marshall, 197
McAlpin, David, 179
McCormick, Carlo, 87 
McDean, Craig, 164
McRorie, Sally, 198 
meaning
interpretation and, 65-66
writing and, 222-225 
medium
definition of, 33
description of, 33-36
Meisel, Steven, 164
Meiselas, Susan; Carnival Strippers, 79; Kurdistan, 79; Nicaragua, 79
Mendieta, Ana, 179
Mendoza, Lela, 229
Mercer, Kobena, 204
Messier, Charles, 172
Messier Grid Map (Gitto), 172, 173
metacritical writing, 235-240
Meyerowitz, Joel, 158
Michals, Duane, 59, 86, 140, 158, 187; Christ in New York, 133; He stood there in the shadows, Color Plate 8
Migrations (Wolfe), 175, 193
Mini Lab (Gerlovin & Gerlovina), Color Plate 12
Mirrors and Windows (Szarkowski), 4, 134
Mirzoeff, Nicholas, 203
Misrach, Richard, 58, 97, 161; Dead Animals #79, Color Plate 31
Mitchell, Luther H., 203
modernism, 184-191
Moholy-Nagy, Lazlo, 68
Mole, Arthur, 182
Molnar, Lynette, 200; AIDS: The Artists’ Response, 138
Mondrian, Piet, 100
Moomise, Hernandez, New Mexico (Adams), 176
Morgan, Stuart, 150
Mull, Carter, 103-104;Untitled(reverie V), 102
Mullican, Mat, 115
multicultural theory, 201-204
Munoz, Paloma, 257; “Travelers,” 87, Color Plate 10
Musees de France Research Laboratory, 73
Muybridge, Eadweard, 77

Naef, Weston, 188
Name of the Rose, The (Barthes), 28
Nancy.Jean-Luc, 7
National Geographic (magazine), 174
National Press Photographers Assocation (NPPA), 174

Nature Photography Association, 174
Nauman, Bruce, 179
Nearby Cafe (Web site), 8
negative judgments, 130
neoexpressionism, 36
Neumaier, Diane, 55-56
New Art Examiner (journal), 5, 12
New Color Photography, The(Eauclaire), 4, 69
Newhall, Beaumont, 157, 179, 187;History of Photography, The, 67-68
New Homes, Inland Empire (Sultan),Color Plate 25
Newman, Arnold, 49
New Republic (magazine), 8
Newsweek (magazine), 5, 8, 22, 133, 159, 200
New Yorker (magazine), 128, 152
New York Magazine, 5
New York Public Library, 183
New York Review of Books, 8
New York School, 178
New York Times (newspaper), 5, 7, 8, 26, 35, 40, 87,89,98, 133,148,150,159,162
Nicaragua (Meiselas), 79
Nichols, Bill, 58, 60
Nichols, Ted, 175, 176
Nicosia, Nie, 158
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 121
Night-blooming Cereus (Mann), 233
Nixon, Nicholas, 139
North American Indian, The (Curtis), 37
Norton, Richard, 205
Nosei, Annina, 119
note-taking, writing and, 216-217
NPPA. See National Press Photographers Assocation (NPPA)
“Nude Adrift” (Tunick), 23
Numen (Cheng), 79, 80

Obama, Barak, 128
observation, writing and, 216-217
October (journal), 9, 179
Ogilvy, David, Confessions of an Advertising Man, 167
Only Skin Deep: Changing Visions of the American Self (Firstenberg), 159
On Photography (Sontag), 4, 132, 179, 182, 194 ontological debate, 165
ontology
definition of, 160
digital images and, 162-165
photographic theory and, 160-165
Opie, Catherine, 204-205; Amy, 206
opposing judgments, 130-131
“Oregon” (Friedlander), 247
Orientalism (Said), 210
original context, 106-108, 115-118
O’Sullivan, Timothy, 183
Other Side, The (Goldin), 80-81
Owens, Bill, Suburbia, 71, 122
Owens, Craig, 119, 121

Pagano,Greer,222,224-225
ParkeHarrison, Robert, 87;Kingdom, 88
Parr, Martin, 98; Stockholm, Sweden, Color Plate 24
passive voice, 245
Peirce, C. S., 161
Penn, Irving, 96, 131, 156, 158, 187
Pepper No. 30 (Weston), 106
Perchuk, Andrew, 35
“Perfect Moment, The” (Mapplethorpe), 144-153
Perfect Moment, The(Mapplethorpe), 226
Perlmutter, David D., Photojournalism and Foreign Policy, 177
personal significance, interpretation and, 65-66
perspectives, interpretive, 53-61
persuasiveness, 166-169
Pfahl,John, 52
Philadelphia Inquirer, 8
Phillips, Lisa, 128, 132
Photographer’s Eye, The(Szarkowski), 68, 135, 157-158
photographs
aesthetically evaluative, 95-98
categories of, 68-72
descriptive, 72-76, 121-122
ethically evaluative, 89-95, 122-123
explanatory, 77-83, 122
interpretive, 83-89
theoretical, 99-104, 123-124

Photography at the Dock (Solomon-Godeau), 9
Photojoumalism and Foreign Policy (Permutter), 177
Photo Metro (journal), 5
Photoshop (software), 174, 193
Picasso, Pablo, 138, 178
Pickerill, Eric, 226, 22 7-228
Pictorial Effect in Photography: Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro(Robinson), 175
pictorialism, 136
pictorialist photographs, 67
Pincus-Witten, Robert, 13
Piper, Adrian, 171
Piss Christ (Serrano), 146, 152
Plagens, Peter, 5, 8, 13
Planet Waves (DVD), 191
Plato, 134
“Playing It Again: Strategies of Appropriation” (group exhibition), 120
Poe, Edgar Allan, 165-166
Poetics (Aristotle), 182
Pollock, Griselda, 200
“Polonia and Other Fables” (Sekula), 91, 92
Popsicle Drips (Mann), 231, 233
Popular Photography (journal), 8
Porter, Eliot, 175
Portfolio Brazil (Kuhn), 96
positive judgments, 128-129
positivism, 166
postcolonial theory, 209-212
postmodernism, 184-191
poststructuralism, 186
Potato Manifestation (Larson), 241
preferences, judgments and, 142-143
Presidency I (Demand), Color Plate 28
Prince, Richard, 116, 121, 180, 190, 203; Women, 100
Prince Imperial, The (Witkin), 29
Princethal, Nancy, 84
“Proud Flesh” (Mann), 56
psychoanalytic interpretation, 56
“Public Address” (group show), 119
purist photography, 67
Pygmalion (Witkin), 31

queer theory,204-209
questions, in interpretation, 47
quick-writes, 217-220
Quilter, Anne, 230-231

Ramamurthy, Anandi, 211
Rauschenberg, Robert, 179
Raymond (Mapplethorpe), 151
realism, 134-136
realist theory, 165-169
reappraisals, 142
reasons, judgments and, 131-132
Regarding the Pain of Others(Sontag), 4
Remote Control: Power, Cultures, and the World of Appearances(Kruger), 4
reviewers, 1
revisionist criticism, 14 2
Ricard, Rene, 2
Rice, Shelley, 51
Richards, Eugene, 130, 24 7;Cocaine Blue, Cocaine True, 247;Exploding into Life, 247
Rickey, Carrie, 8, 143
Riis, Jacob, 167, 183
Ringgold, Faith, 224
Ritchin, Fred, 162
Robinson, Aminah, 224
Robinson, Henry Peach, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro, 175
Rodin, Pierre-Auguste, 178
Rohrbach,John, 175-176
Root, Alan, 175
Rosenblum, Naomi, History of Women Photographers, A, 200
Rosier, Martha, 111-112, 157,179,196,197
Roth, Christine, 210
Rubens, Peter Paul, 31
Ruff, Thomas, 192-193; cassini, 101-102, Color Plate 27
Ruscha, Ed, Twentysix Gasoline Stations, 179


S-Z

Saar, Alison, 224
Said, Edward, Orientalism, 210
Salgado, Sebastiao, 7
Salle, David, 115
Saltz,Jerry, 11, 13, 236-237
Sampsel, James, 229
Sander, August, 37, 157
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 186
Schiele, Egon, 100
Schjeldahl, Peter, 1-2, 3, 11, 14, 246
Schreiber, Le Anne, 119-120
Schwegler, Fritz, 103
Seaman, Bill, 105
Seattle Post-Intelligencer(newspaper), 175
Sekula, Allan, 13, 130, 157, 166, 181-182, 196-197; Fish Story, 91;Geography Lesson: Canadian Notes, 91; “Polonia and Other Fables,” 91, 92; Three pigs on family farm, 92
Self-Portrait (Mapplethorpe), 227
Seltz, Peter, 13
semiotic interpretation, 58
September 11, 2001, 195-196
Serpent’s Chronicle (Folberg) , 86
Serrano, Andres, 158; Piss Christ,146, 152 Shahn, Ben, 31
Sheeler, Charles, 178
Sheikh, Fazal, To Cure Impotence, 81, 81-82
Sherman, Cindy, 28-29, 53, 63. 99. 128, 132, 158,180,186,190; Film Stills, 4; Untitled, Color Plate 1; “Untitled Film Stills,” 26, 27, 28
Shock of the New, The (television series), 8
“Short History of Photography, A” (Benjamin), 190
Siegel, Marcia, 14-15
significance, interpretation and, 65-66
Simmons, Laurie, 56, 92-93, 180, 190. 246; Black Bathroom, Color Plate 32
Simpson, Lorna, 91, 128, 158,203
Simpson, Nicole, 174
Simpson, O.J, 174
Sischy, Ingrid, 6-7, 150, 152
Siskind, Aaron, 178; sister (Slota & LaBute), Color Plate 13; Three Color Curl CMY/Four Magnet, Irvine. California January 3rd 2010, Color Plate 29
Skoglund, Sandy, 33-34, 63, 158, 262; Spirituality of the Flesh, 34;Walking on Eggshells, 33
Slemmons, Rod, 103, 129
Slota, Gerald, sister, Color Plate 13
Smith, Eugene, 112, 197
Smith, Ralph, 6
Simthson, Robert, 179
Snyder,Joel, 161-162, 169
sociology, 166
Solomon-Godeau, Abigail, 7, 8-9, 168, 182. 189, 190,198,199,200;Photography at the Dock, 9
Sontag, Susan, 43–45, 112, 130, 167, 169, 190. 191; On Photography, 4, 132, 179, 182, 194;Regarding the Pain of Others, 4
Sorrenti, Mario, 164
sources, information, 37-39
Spirituality of the Flesh (Skoglund), 34
Sports Illustrated (magazine), 58
Spurgin, Tim, 210
Squiers, Carol, 119, 120
Starn, Doug, 158, 180, 181, 183, 246; Attracted to Light, 35
Starn, Mike, 158, 180, 181, 183, 246; Attracted to Light, 35
Steer, Tootsie, 175
Steichen, Edward, 137, 142, 175, 203
Steinmetiz, Philip, 196
Sternfeld,Joel, 193
Stevens, Mark, 9, 10, 13, 131
Stieglitz, Alfred, 55, 67, 137, 178, 180, 187
Stills from a Spelling Lesson (Reel 4). With Man Ray (Wegman), 221
Stockholder Meeting, Diptych(Gursky), 192
Stockholm, Sweden (Parr), Color Plate 24
Strand, Paul, 67, 134, 157, 167, 176, 178, 187
Strauss, David Levi; “Lament on the Images,” 89, 89
structuralism, 186
students, interpretive writings of, 220-221
studio critiques, 250-269
definition of, 250-251
descriptive, 262
intentionalist, 260-262
interpretive, 263
judgmental, 263-265
principles of, 269
successful, 266-269
theoretical, 265-266
types of, 260-266
without advice, 266
Study for a Roman Fresco (Gall), Color Plate 6
Stuhr, Patricia, 201
Sturges, Jock, 158
Sturman,John, 120

style
definition of, 36
description of, 36
stylistic interpretation, 59
subject, subject matter vs., 23
subject matter
description of, 23-31
subject vs., 23
Suburbia (Owens), 71, 122
Sultan, Larry, 98; New Homes, Inland Empire, Color Plate 25
Sunday Funnies (Mann), 233
Sundsbo, Solve, 98, Color Plate 23
“Surveillance” (Kruger), 113-124, 114
Szarkowski,John, 4 -5, 31, 51, 55, 79, 95, 111, 179,180,187, 188;Looking at Photographs: 100 Pictures from the Collection of the Museum of Modem Art, 109; Mirrors and Windows, 4, 134;Photographer’s Eye, The, 68, 135, 157-158

Talbot, William Hemy Fox, 161, 170-171
talking, 247-250
technique, interpretation and, 60
Terrible Picture (Mann), 233
Text (Charlesworth), 99, 100
theoretical criticism, 7
theoretical critiques, 265-266
theoretical photographs, 99-104, 123-124
theory(ies)
aesthetics and, 177-194
benefits of, 158
conventionalist, 169-171
credibility and, 166-169
criticism and, 156-157
curators and, 157-158
definition of, 155
education and, 158
epistemology and, 165-177
ethics and, 194-212
Marxist, 196-197
modernism and, 184-191
multicultural, 201-204
multiple, 156
need for, 156
ontology and, 160-165
persuasiveness and, 166-169
postcolonial, 209-212
postmodernism and, 184-191
practice and, 156-160
queer, 204-209
realist, 165-169
scope of, 155
shunning of, 158
Thin (Greenfield), 78, 78
Thoraxic Park, Paris (Witkin), 30
Thornton, Gene, 40, 133; 
Three Gorges Dam, 93
Three pigs on family farm (Sekula), 92
Tiananmen Square, 177
Tillman, Wolfgang, 238
Timberlake, Justin, 195
Time (magazine), 5, 6, 8, 174
To Cure Impotence (Sheikh), 81, 82
Towell, Larry, 255
Transfiguration of the Commonplace: A Philosophy of Art(Danto), 182
transgendered persons, 204-209
“Travelers” (Martin & Munoz), 87, Color Plate 10
Trucker, Marcia, 115
truth, 171-177
Truth, Sojourner, 203-204
Tunick, Spencer; Dream Amsterdam, 24; “Nude Adrift,” 23
Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Photography, 86
Twentysix Gasoline Stations(Ruscha), 179
Twombly, Cy, 97

Uelsmann,Jerry, 63, 86
Untitled (Uelsmann), 64
Underexposed: Censored Pictures and Hidden History (Jacobson), 174, 176-177, 256
“Unidentified Migrant Worker” (Avedon), 202
Untitled, I did not remember I had forgotten (#54) (Letinsky), Color Plate 18
Untitled, 1981 (Kruger), 116
Untitled, 1983 (Kruger), 116
Untitled, Winter (Crewdson), 194
Untitled (Falling Buffalo)(Wojnarowicz), 207-209,208
“Untitled Film Stills” (Sherman), 26, 27, 28
Untitled (Fuss), 161
Untitled (Groover), 32, 32
Untitled (Koudelka), 51
Untitled (Rabbi) (diCorcia), Color Plate 11
Untitled (Reel Door) (Cohen), Color Plate 21
Untitled (reverie V) (Mull), 102
Untitled (Sherman), Color Plate 1
Untitled (“Surveillance”) (Kruger), 113-124, 114
Untitled (Thinking of You) (Kruger), Color Plate 30
Untitled (Uelsmann), 64
Untitled (Williams), 16-17, 17
Untitled (Woman at the Vanity)(Lucid), 35

style
definition of, 36
description of, 36
stylistic interpretation, 59
subject, subject matter vs., 23
subject matter
description of, 23-31
subject vs., 23
Suburbia (Owens), 71, 122
Sultan, Larry, 98; New Homes, Inland Empire, Color Plate 25
Sunday Funnies (Mann), 233
Sundsbo, Solve, 98, Color Plate 23
“Surveillance” (Kruger), 113-124, 114
Szarkowski,John, 4 -5, 31, 51, 55, 79, 95, 111, 179,180,187, 188;Looking at Photographs: 100 Pictures from the Collection of the Museum of Modem Art, 109; Mirrors and Windows, 4, 134;Photographer’s Eye, The, 68, 135, 157-158

Talbot, William Hemy Fox, 161, 170-171
talking, 247-250
technique, interpretation and, 60
Terrible Picture (Mann), 233
Text (Charlesworth), 99, 100
theoretical criticism, 7
theoretical critiques, 265-266
theoretical photographs, 99-104, 123-124
theory(ies)
aesthetics and, 177-194
benefits of, 158
conventionalist, 169-171
credibility and, 166-169
criticism and, 156-157
curators and, 157-158
definition of, 155
education and, 158
epistemology and, 165-177
ethics and, 194-212
Marxist, 196-197
modernism and, 184-191
multicultural, 201-204
multiple, 156
need for, 156
ontology and, 160-165
persuasiveness and, 166-169
postcolonial, 209-212
postmodernism and, 184-191
practice and, 156-160
queer, 204-209
realist, 165-169
scope of, 155
shunning of, 158
Thin (Greenfield), 78, 78
Thoraxic Park, Paris (Witkin), 30
Thornton, Gene, 40, 133; 
Three Gorges Dam, 93
Three pigs on family farm (Sekula), 92
Tiananmen Square, 177
Tillman, Wolfgang, 238
Timberlake, Justin, 195
Time (magazine), 5, 6, 8, 174
To Cure Impotence (Sheikh), 81, 82
Towell, Larry, 255
Transfiguration of the Commonplace: A Philosophy of Art(Danto), 182
transgendered persons, 204-209
“Travelers” (Martin & Munoz), 87, Color Plate 10
Trucker, Marcia, 115
truth, 171-177
Truth, Sojourner, 203-204
Tunick, Spencer; Dream Amsterdam, 24; “Nude Adrift,” 23
Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Photography, 86
Twentysix Gasoline Stations(Ruscha), 179
Twombly, Cy, 97

Uelsmann,Jerry, 63, 86
Untitled (Uelsmann), 64
Underexposed: Censored Pictures and Hidden History (Jacobson), 174, 176-177, 256
“Unidentified Migrant Worker” (Avedon), 202
Untitled, I did not remember I had forgotten (#54) (Letinsky), Color Plate 18
Untitled, 1981 (Kruger), 116
Untitled, 1983 (Kruger), 116
Untitled, Winter (Crewdson), 194
Untitled (Falling Buffalo)(Wojnarowicz), 207-209,208
“Untitled Film Stills” (Sherman), 26, 27, 28
Untitled (Fuss), 161
Untitled (Groover), 32, 32
Untitled (Koudelka), 51
Untitled (Rabbi) (diCorcia), Color Plate 11
Untitled (Reel Door) (Cohen), Color Plate 21
Untitled (reverie V) (Mull), 102
Untitled (Sherman), Color Plate 1
Untitled (“Surveillance”) (Kruger), 113-124, 114
Untitled (Thinking of You) (Kruger), Color Plate 30
Untitled (Uelsmann), 64
Untitled (Williams), 16-17, 17
Untitled (Woman at the Vanity)(Lucid), 35