Soutter, Lucy

Why art photography?

Soutter, L. (2013) Why art photography? London: Routledge.


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QuotesContentsIndex


Quotes

Some photographic portraiture feels voyeuristic because we get the impression that the sitters would not have wanted to be portrayed in the way they have been. For example, Diane Arbus’s and Richard Avedon’s images can feel shockingly invasive and unkind, as if the photographers have been ruthless in imposing their own vision. Grannan’s work is complicated by its conceptual subtext. She plays off the question of the collaborative portrait by letting it be known that this is how and where her sitters wanted to pose, this is what they wanted to wear (or not wear). Yet writing around the project indicates that like the stylist of a fashion shoot the artist stage-manages quite extensively to achieve her desired image.

p.21

The traditional portrait is a humanist enterprise, wrapped up in the project of reading, understanding and reinforcing what we know about human subjectivity. While many photographers still work with this model, some of the most successful contemporary art photographers, including the ones in this chapter, draw on a variety of genres and the radical gestures of twentieth-century art to produce a new kind of portraiture. Like a hybrid plant, it retains characteristics of its precedents, while bearing very different fruit. The lasting legacy of postmodernism has been its challenge to the master narratives of the twentieth century, including logic, certainty and truth. Contemporary art discourse thrives on works which are to some extent illogical, uncertain and riddled with elements of contradiction, fiction and fantasy.

p.28

Contents

Introduction: Why Art Photography? 1

1 Hybrid Genres: Portraiture 13

2 Objectivity and Seriousness 31

3 Fictive Documents 52

4 Authenticity 70

5 Digital Dialogues: Spectacle and Spectators 92

6 Beyond Photography 112


Index A-C

A

abstract expressionism, 22

Adams, Ansel, 17, 94, 11011

Adorno, Theodor, 50n, 97

aesthetic, the, 4, 31, 38, 129

affect, 42, 128, 13211

Afterlife (Broom berg and Chanarin),

60-1, 62, 64

aftermath photography, 57

Alberro, Alex, 110n

Aletti, Vince, 29n

Alphabet Concept VBLV (Beecroft),

9, 10

amateur photography, 16

ambiguity, contemporary art,2 7-8,3 4,

100, 128

American Apparel, 85

American art/photography, 33-5

Andre, Carl, 18, 50n

Amin, Eleanor, 22-3

appropriation, 4, 5

Arbus, Diane, 21

Aristotle, 77-8

art photography: arguments against, 7-8, 126-7; contemporary concerns, 6-7; in context, 5-6; criticality and complicity, 9, 11-12; defining, 2-3, 128-30; expanded field of, 112-126; value and meaning, 1-2, 8-9; versus photography as art, 2-5

Art Photography Now (Bright), 28n

Asher, Michael, 22

Adas Group, The, 64, 65, 69n

Austin, J. L., 74, 90n

authenticity, 4, 7, 70-91; and consumerism, 84-7; in context, 77-9; versus inauthenticity, 89; and performativity, 83-4; and the personal, 76-7; presenting the authentic, 79, 81-3

author-function, 75

automatism, 129

autonomy: versus contingency, 17-18;

and objectivity, 37, 38

avant-garde art/photography, 3, 17, 28n,

29n, 35, 99,129

A vedon, Richard, 21

Avgikos, Jan, 29n

B

backstories, 16-17, 64, 101

Badiou, Alain, 91n

Baker, George, 113, 114, 13011

Bakhtin, Mikhail, 84

Baldessari, John, 4

Ballad of Sexual Dependency (Goldin), 76, 90n

banality, 7, 43, 44

Banco de Espaiia IV (Hofer), 40

Barney, Matthew, 121, 122

Barry, Robert, 4, 22

Barthes, Roland, 41, 73, 75, 89n, 90n, 129

Basin (Kolker), 107, 108

Batchen, Geoffrey, 8, 113, 13011

Bate, David, 73, 75, 90n, 11011, 130n

Baudrillard, Jean, 26, 6811

Baxendall, Michael, 8-9, 12n

Becher, Bernd, 5, 31, 35-9,43,47,4911, 72

Becher, Hilla, 5, 31, 34, 35-9, 47, 49n, 5011, 72

Beecroft, Vanessa, 9, 10, 11

Bellmer, Hans, 3

Bemojake (publisher), 107

“Beneath the Roses” (Crewdson), 98-9

Benjamin, Walter, 4, 129

Beshty, Walead, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 119, 127, 130n, 131n

black-and-white photography, 6

Blalock, Lucas, 131n

Blaustein, Jonathan, 85-6, 91n

Blossfeldt, Karl, 35

Book of Alternative Processes, The (James), 12n

Borchardt-Hume, Achim, 110n

boredom, 44-5, 50n

Bourdieu, Pierre, 16, 28n

Bourriaud, Nicolas, 125

Brecht, Benoit, 100

Breton, Andre, 54

Breuer, Frank, 5, 31, 42-5, 47, 72

Bright, Susan, 28n

Brilliant, Richard, 14, 28n

Broomberg, Adam, 52, 60-1, 62-3, 62, 64, 66, 6811, 129, 13011

Buchloh, Benjamin, 8, 23, 29n

Burgin, Victor, 4, 12n, 55, 127, 132n

Burke, Edmund, 95

Butler, Judith, 84, 90n

C

Callahan, Harry, 20

camera, digital, 119; large-format, 5, 98;

phone, 105; thermographic, 105, 107;

virtual, 107

Campany, David, 58, 6811, 129, 132n

Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 17, 28n, 129

Carving: A Traditional Sculpture (Antin), 22-3

Cavell, Stanley, 78

Celebrity (Hirasawa), 105-7

Chanarin, Oliver, 52, 60-1, 62-3, 62, 64,

66, 6811, 129, 130n

Chevrier, Jean-Frarn;:ois, 55-6, 57, 58, 6811

Choureau-Matikian, Helene, 66, 69n

Church Street and 2nd Street, Easton, Pennsylvania, June 20, 1974 (Shore), 33–4

Cibachrome prints, 76

Cirauqui, Manuel, 57-8, 6811

citizen’s journalism, 93

Clark, Larry, 85

Classic Essays on Photography (Trachtenberg), 12n

colour photography, large-scale, 5 commercial culture, and photography, 1-2, 7, 9 -11, 84-87, 97-101

complicity, 9-12, 14, 99-100

conceptual art, 4, 5, 6, 13, 17, 22-5, 39, 56

consumerism, 11

Continental philosophical tradition, 35

contingency, versus autonomy, 17-18

Cotton, Charlotte, 12n, 127, 132n

Cremaster series (Barney), 121, 131n

Crewdson, Gregory, 92, 97-9, 100, 101, 108, 109

criticality, 5, 6, 9, 11, 100; and Hofer, 39–42

criticism, photographic, 17; formalist, 129 critique of representation, 4, 11, 26, 28, 32, 73, 74, 95

Crasher, Zoe, 13-16, 17, 18, 23–4, 25, 27, 28n, 13011

Crow, Thomas, 8, 12n

Cui Cui (Kawauchi), 81, 82

curators, 3, 16, 44, 54, 64, 107, 111n, 126; artist as curator, 105

Curtin, Brian, 29n

Curtis, James, 67n


D-H

D

David, Jacques-Louis, 56

Davies, Lucy, 110n

Day, Corinne, 74

Day Nobody Died, The (Broomberg and Chanarin), 62-3, 64

deadpan photography, 11, 31, 35, 44, 47-8, 95; versus authentic images, 72

Debord, Guy, 26, 29n, 97, 99, 100, 110n, llln

de-familiarization, 63

Delahaye, Luc, 52, 55-8, 59, 66; Les Pillards (The Looters), 56, 57, 60

Derrida, Jacques, 41

Deschenes, Liz, 131n

detachment, 41-2

Dialectic of Enlightenment (Adorno and Horkheimer), 50n, 97

Diasec process, 41

digital photography, 7, 92-111, 119, 130n

disinterest, 37

documentary photography, 11, 21, 41, 93; document versus documentary, 52-3; documentary constructions, 53–4; documentary dilemmas, 54-5; fictive documents, 52-69; and tableau, 55-8, tacit rules of documentary, 21; traditional, 52-3, 58, 63, 66; truth, claim to, 52-3; useless documents, 54

Drucker, Johanna, 11, 12n, 63, 64, 69n, 99, 100, 108, 111n

Dublon, Amalie, 131n

duBois, Michelle, 14-16, 18

Duchamp, Marcel, 13, 18-22, 26. 129; Fountain, 18, 19, 29n; readymades 18, 29n

Durden, Mark, 29n

Dusseldorf School, 5, 31, 35, 41-43, 47, 95

E

education, photographic (MA and MFA degrees), 5, 27, 3011, 42, 126

Edwards, Elizabeth, 13011

Eklung, Douglas, 51n

emancipated spectators, 100-2, llln

Emin, Tracey, 18

Empson, William, 30n

Eshkol, Noa/Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN) system, 119, 120

Espace Louis Vuitton, exhibition at, 9

ethics, 16, 21-2

Evans, Jason, 129

Evans, Walker, 33, 34, 53, 6711

expanded field of photography, 112-126

expressionism, 22, 35

F

Falls, Sam, 13111

“Family of Man, The” {Steichen), 36

fashion photography, 13, 21, 85, 109n

Faulkner, William, 75

feeling, and authenticity, 71, 8911

feminism/feminist theory, 28, 71

fiction: defined, 58; fictive documents, 52-69; levels of, 66-7; literary, 53

film, and photography, 97-8, 113, 119-121, see also video

fine art photography, 3, 4, 6, 12; see also art photography

Five Dances and Nine Wall Carpets by Noa Eshkol (Lockhart), 121

Flaubert, Gustave, 53, 84

Foster, Hal, 26, 2911, 73, 8911, 9011, 11111

Foucault, Michel, 41, 75, 9011, 102

Fountain (Duchamp), 18, 19, 2911

Fowler, Alastair, 28n

Fox, Howard N., 2911

frames/framing, 4, 94-5

Frank, Robert, 97

Frankfurt School, 43, 45

Fried, Michael, 36, 41, 50n, 72

“From Presence to the Performative: Rethinking Photographic Indexicality” (Lowry and Green), 73-4

G

Gallot, Jean-Marc, 10

genre, 3, 14, 48; definitions, 3, 13-14; hybridization of, 6, 13-30

German art/photography, 32, 35-6, 48

Gestalt Philosophy (Kohler), 47

Glenn, Constance W., 50n

globalization, 95, 127; of the art world, 39

Godfrey, Mark, 59-60, 6811

Goldie, Peter, 12n

Goldin, Nan, 5, 70, 71, 72, 74, 78, 79, 84, 87; Ballad of Sexual Dependency, 76, 90n; Nan One Month After Being Battered, 76, 77

Goldstein, Ann, 45, 50n

Google, 102, 105, 109

Grannan, Katy, 13, 19-22, 23, 25, 27, 2911

Green, David, 73-4, 75, 90n

Greenberg, Clement, 116, 129, 13111

Grundberg, Andy, 79, 9011

Guggenheim Museum, New York, 121-2

Guignon, Charles, 78, 90n

Gulf War Did Not Take Place, The (Baudrillard), 59, 6811

Gursky, Andreas, 92, 95-7, 101, 108, 109

H

Hall, Stuart, 28n

Hambourg, Maria Morris, 51n

Harris, Lyle Ashton, 123

Harris, Melissa, llln

Harrison, Rachel, 112, 117, 118-19, 118, 13111

Hart, Janice, 13011

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 35

Hemingway, Ernest, 53

Hill, John T., 6711

Hirasawa, Kenji, 92, 105-7

Hirsch, Robert, 1211

History of Photography, The (Newhall), 8

Hoch, Hannah, 97

Hofer, Candida, 5, 31, 39-42, 47, 72; Banco de Espana IV, 40,

Hopkinson, Rebecca, 3011, 13211

Horkheimer, Max, 5011, 97

Hubbard, Sue, 2911

humanism, 28, 36, 71, 75, 78, 88

hyper-photography, 92, 96, 10911


I-P

I

identity: middle-class, 18; postmodern theories, 14, 71

image tampering, 11011

image/images, large-scale images, 5, 41; versus object, 112-13; poor, 102-9; pure, 94-7; snapshot photography, 15-16; social use, 107; vernacular

image-making, 92

impartiality, 37

inauthenticity, 89

individualism, 33

information capitalism, 105

institutional critique, 114, 130n

Internet, 67n, 101, 105, 126

in tertextuali ty, 27

Irvine, Karen, 59, 68n

Iverson, Margaret, 89n

J

Jaar, Alfredo, 55

James, Christopher, 11, 12n

James, Sarah, 36, 39, 50n, 128-9, 132n

Jenkins, Henry, 13111

Jens F. 1141115 project (Schorr), 24, 25

Joyce, Ja mes, 53

JR, 123, 124-6, 131n

K

Kant, Immanuel, 35, 36, 37, 47

Kawauchi, Rinko, 70, 72, 81-2, 82, 87

Kelly, Mary, 131n

Kermode, Frank, 53, 58, 67n, 68n

Kimmelman, Michael, 131n

Kiss Explosion (McGinley), 85, 86

Kodak, Eastman, 109

Kohler, Wolfgang, 47

Kolker, Richard, 92, 93, 107-8

Kosuth, Joseph, 4

Kraus, Chris, 85, 91n

Krauss, Rosalind, 4, 113, 117, 13111

Kruger, Barbara, 26

L

Lacan, Jacques, 73

LaChapelle, David, 109n

landscape, 3, 17, 101

Le, An-My, 52, 59-60, 61, 66

Leavis, F. R., 84

Les Pillards (The Looters) (Delahaye), 56, 57, 60

Let’s Be Honest, the Weather Helped (Raad), 64, 65

Levine, Sherrie, 5, 26

lightbox, 5

Lister, Marin, 11011

Lockhart, Sharon, 112, 119, 120-1, 122

Looking Away (Crasher), 15, 16

Louis Vuitton brand, 9, 11

low-res images, 101-3, 106-7 see also “poor image”

Lowry, Joanna, 29n, 73-4, 75, 83, 90n

M

Malcolm, Janet, 11011

Mann, Sally, 75

“Manning the Rail, USS Tortuga, Java Sea, 2010” (An-my Le), 60, 61

Mapplethorpe, Robert, 5

Marien, Mary Warner, 12n

Marion, Jean-Luc, 91n

Marlbora cigarette advertisements, re-photographed (Richard Prince), 26-7

McGinley, Ryan, 70, 72, 85, 86, 87, 91n

medium, photography as, 3, 6, 7, 17, 116-21, 128, 128-30, 13111; and expanded field of photography, 113-14

Mihailov, Boris, 73

minimalism, 34, 38, 39, 117

Mitchell, William, 110n

modernism/modernist photography, 3, 4, 6, 9, 17, 28n, 121; and digital photography, 94; natural modernists, 1-2; and objectivity, 32, 34, 37, 39, 48

Moholy, Lucia, 35

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo, 3, 34-5, 50n, 129

montage, photographic, 95, 97

Mora, Gilles, 67n

Moschovi, Alexandra, 12n

mounting, 94-5

Munoz, Oscar, 55

Museum of Modern Art, New York, 8

“museum photography” (Julian Stellabrass), 41, 50n

“Mystic Lake” Series (Grannan), 19-21

N

Nadja (Breton), 54

Nan One Month After Being Battered (Nan Goldin), 76, 77

Nancy, Jean-Luc, 87, 91n, 100

narrative/narrator, 75, 84, 89, 116, 121, 125, 129; in conceptual art, 22-4

“near documentary” (Jeff Wall), 66

New Objectivity, 35

“New Topographies” exhibition, New York (1975), 34

New York, Museum of Modern Art, 8

Newhall, Beaumont, 8, 12n

Nine Eyes of Google Street View, The (Rafman), 102, 105

99 Cent II Diptychon, 2001 (Gursky), 96

Nordstrom, Alison, 50n

Norfolk, Simon, 57

nude, the, 3, 6, 24

O

object, versus image, 112-13

objectivity, 6-7, 31-49, 70; defining, 32-4: Dusseldorf School, 35, 41, 42, 43, 47, 95; see also Becher, Bernd; Becher, Hilla; Breuer, Frank; Hofer, Candida; Struth, Thomas

Ohlin, Alix, 11011

O’Keeffe, Georgia, 14

On Being Authentic (Guignon), 78, 90n

On Photography (Sontag), 12n

O’Reilly, Sally, 89n

O’Sullivan, Simon, 132n

Othova, Marketa, 6

Owens, Clifford, 112, 122, 123, 124, 131n

Owens, Craig, 4, 95, 110n

P

Passages (Beshty), 114

Patterns of Intention (Baxendall), 8-9, 12n

Per Pulverem Ad Astra (Stenram), 101-2

performance art 9, 11, 122-4

performance studies, 89

performativity, 73-4, 83-4

phenomenology, 100

Phillips, Christopher, 8, 12n, 6711

Phillips, Lisa, 2911

Photograph as Contemporary Art, The (Cotton), 1211, 127, 13211

photographic theory, 4, 127-130

Photographs with an Audience (Owens), 122, 123, 124

photography: as art, 2 -6, 8 -9; 11-12, 112, 128-30; expanded field of, 112-126; large-scale, 5, 41; snapshot, 15, 16, 74, 76, 129; see also art photography; deadpan photography; digital photography; image/images; medium

Photography: A Cultural History (Warner), 1211

photojournalism, 17, 21, 67-811; and authenticity, 70; and documentary photography, 53-5, 58, 59, 64

Pickering, Sarah, 48, 49

pictorial paradigm, 112

pictorialism, 32

Pierson, Jack, 74

Piss Christ (Serrano), 27

platinum printing, 5

Plato’s cave allegory, 97

“Polaroided” series (Zoe Crasher), 15

Polidori, Robert, 41, 42

Pollock, Jackson, 22, 46

“poor image, the” (Hito Steyer!), 102-9

pornography, Internet, 109

portraiture, 3, 6, 13-30

post-medium condition, art’s, 116-7

postmodernism, 4, 5, 7, 11, 14, 26, 128; and authenticity, 71; and digital photography, 95; and objectivity, 32;

postmodern textuality, 17-18, 25-8

post-structuralism, 4, 41, 71, 100

post-studio art, 116-17

Potts, Alex, 13 ln

Price, Derrick, 67n

Prince, Richard, 5, 26-7, 29n

printing, photographic, 5, 17, 94-5

“prosumer”, 103, 1 lln

psychoanalysis, 71, 73


Q-Z

Q

Quawson, lvluzi, 70, 72, 82-3, 87

queer theory, 71

R

Raad, Walid, 52, 64-6, 130n

Rafman, Jon, 92, 102-5, 107, llln

Ragland-Smiuth, Ellie, 89n

Ranciere, Jacques, 91n, 100, 101, 109, llln

Ray, Man, 3, 54

Razmi, Jahangir, 61

readymades (Duchamp), 17, 18, 29n

real, the, 39, 53, 58, 87-88; and authenticity, 72-4

realism, 35, 39, 43, 66-7, 74, 107; socialist, 6; traumatic, 73

reality, 7; and authenticity, 70, 73, 87; and digital photography, 95, 97, 108; and fiction/fictive documents, 52, 53, 54, 58, 66, 67; and genre, 25-26, 28; objectivity, 32, 35, 38, 43; in work of Struth, Thomas, 45-7

“Reconsidered Archive of Michelle duBois, The” (Crasher), 14

refamiliarization, 63-6

Rejlander, Oscar, 95

relational aesthetics, 125

representation, 35, 87, 92; critique of, 4, 11, 26, 28, 32, 73, 74, 95

Richardson, Craig, 29n

Rimanelli, David, 76, 90n

Ristelhueber, Sophie, 57

Ritchin, Fred, 109n

Robbe-Grillet, Alain, 67, 69n, 129

Roberts, Russell, 67n

Robinson, Henry Peach, 95

Rodchenko, Aleksandr, 3

romanticism, 11, 75, 78, 88

Rosier, Martha, 54-5, 67n

Ruscha, Ed, 34

S

Salvesen, Britt, 34, 50n

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 126, 132n

Sander, August, 35

Sarraute, Nathalie, 90n

Schellekens, Elisabeth, 12n

Schjeldahl, Peter, 47, 5011

Schorr, Collier, 13, 24, 25, 27, 2911, 13011

Scruton, Roger, 5011

Seawright, Paul, 57

Seizing the Light: A Social History of Photography (Hirsch), 1211

Sekula, Allan, 55, 127

self, the, 7, 71, 88

seriousness, 42-5

Serpentine Gallery, London, 27

Serrano, Andres, 5, 27

Sherman, Cindy, 16, 73, 76

Shinkle, Eugenie, 43, 50n

Shore, Stephen, 33–4

Sierra, Santiago, 22

Simpson, Lorna, 123

simulacra, 73

simulation, 93

Sincerity and Authenticity (Trilling), 87, 9111

“Small Wars” (1999-2002) (An-my Le), 59

Smith, Sarah-Neel, 13111

Smith, W. Eugene, 53, 67n

Smithson, Robert, 34

snapshot photography, 15, 16, 18, 74, 76, 129

social documentary, 52

social networking, 105

Society of Independent Artists exhibition (1917), 19

Society of the Spectacle, The (Debord), 97, 11011, llln

Solomon-Godeau, Abigail, 4, 127

Sontag, Susan, 8, 12n, 6711

spectacle, 8, 92, 93, 97-9

spectarors, 93, 100-2

Steichen, Edward, 36

Steigler, Bernard, 91n

Steinert, Otro, 36

Stellabrass, Julian, 41, 50n

Stenram, Eva, 92, 101-2, 102, 103, 107

Steyer!, Hito, 102-3, 105, 108-9, llln

Stieglitz, Alfred, 3, 12n, 14, 19, 94

still life, 3, 72

Stimson, Blake, 36, 50n, 69n. 13111

Strand, Paul. 33. 35. 49n

Street View, Google …

Struth, Thomas …

sublime, the, 95, 96; 1 l0n, digital, 108, 109

subtexts, 16-17

surrealism, 3, 6, 54

Svoboda, Jan, 6

Sweet Dreams: Complicity and Contemporary Art (Drucker), 11, 12n, 99, llln

Szarkowski, John, 131n

T

tableau, 5, 55-8

Tagg, John, 67, 127

Taliban (Delahaye), 55, 56

Taylor, Charles, 78

Teller, Juergen, 74

Terada, Rei, 89n

textuality, postmodern, 25-8, 87

theatricality, 72, 122

thermographic imaging, 107, 109

Tillmans, Wolfgang, 70, 71, 72, 74, 79, 80, 81, 84, 85, 87

Tim, b. 1981 (2004) (Grannan), 19, 20

Townsend, Chris, 90n

Trachtenberg, Alan, 1211

transmediality, 121-2, 126, 13111

trauma, 73, 74

Trilling, Lionel, 87, 9011, 91n

truth/truth-value, 7, 70, 92-3

“29 Palms” series (Le), 59-60

typologies, 35, 39, 47-8

U

Untitled (Cowboy) (Richard Prince), 26, 2911

V

Velazquez, Diego, 14

Verhagen, Marcus, 5011

vernacular image-making, 92

video, 123, see also film

virtual camera, 107

visuality, 5, 32, 48, 98

Voyage of the Beagle (Harrison , 118-19

voyeurism, 15, 21

Vuitton, Moet Henness,· Louis. 9, 10

W

Wall, Jeff…

Wallis, Brian …

Warhol, Andy …

Water Towers (Bechers) …

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 26, 85

Who’s Afraid of Conceptual Art (Goldie and Shellekens), 1211

Williams, Raymond, 84

Williams, Tennessee, 75

Wolf, Sylvia, 109n

Women Are Heroes JR . 12-. 125, 126

Wood, Catherine, 13111

Wyeth, Andrew, 24, 25

XYZ

Zimmermann, Mark, 77, 9011

Zwehl, Bettina von, 48