Salkeld, Richard

Reading Photographs: an introduction to the theory and meaning of images

Salkeld, R. (2018) Reading Photographs. London: Bloomsbury


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QuotesContentsIndex


Quotes

text


Contents

What is a photograph?
Invention: the marriage of chemistry and optics
Time and light
Uses and applications 26 and images 48 Facts and fiction
The camera: an evolution
Case study: Chuck Close

Reading the signs
Where do meanings come from?
Language:words, sounds and images
Semiotics: the study of signs
Ideology: ideas, practices and beliefs
Case study: Anthony Barrett

Truth and lies
What is ‘real’?
Representation and reality
Facts and fiction
Case study: Thomas Hoepker

Identity
People and portraits
Signifying identity
Looking
The body
Case study: Mark Garanger

Big Brother is watching you
The modern world
The bad, the mad and the ‘other’
Surveillance society: the Panopticon
Who is looking at whom?
Public spaces – private lives
Case study: Shizuka Yokomizo

Aesthetics
But is it art?
Photography cannot be art
What is art?
Photography as art – the history of an idea
Into postmodernism
Case study: Richard Billingham


Index A-C

A

Adams, Ansel 160, 161

Adams, Eddie 72-4

advertising 26, 80, 113-14, 115

aesthetics 144-73, 175

Alicante (Cartier-Bresson) 29

arbitrary signs 52, 66-7

Arb us, Diane 105

Arnolfini Portrait (van Eyck) 13

art 28, 144-73, 175; definitions 152-5; photography as 156-69

‘authentic’ photography 34, 81

Ayre, Elizabeth 112, 113

B

Ballantyne, Trudie 46, 4 7, 48, 64, 65, 171

Barrett, Anthony 66-7

Barthes, Roland 50, 56, 61-2

Baudrillard, Jean 87

Bayard, Hippolyte 81

beliefs 58-65

Benetton campaigns 64, 65

Benjamin, Walter 24, 28, 164

Bentham, Jeremy 132, 133

Berger, John 108, 110

Bertillon, Alphonse 124, 125, 127

Bieber, Jodi 114

‘Big Brother’ 1 22-43

Billingham, Richard 172-3

Bland, Alex 87

the body: identity and 110-17; measuring 128, 129

Boulevard du Temple, Paris (Daguerre) 17, 22

Boulogne, Duchenne de 130, 131

Bourne, Samuel 34, 35

C

calotypes 1 8, 19

camera obscura 12, 13, 16

cameraless photography 14

cameras: evolution of 38-9; Kodak 32; ‘ … never lie’ 72-3; operation of 20

canons of art 163

Capa, Robert 86

cartes-de-visite 30, 30-1

Cartier-Bresson, Henri 29, 88

Casey, Joanna 37, 49, 76, 77, 107, 109, 111

celluloid film 38

chemistry and optics 12-1 9

choice 48

chronophotographs 22

cinema 23

Close, Chuck 40-3, 175

codes 55; see also signs

collodion 18, 38

colour 20, 21, 162

‘common sense’ 45, 61

conceptual art 166, 169

‘concerned’ photographers 36-7

connotation 53, 66-7

construction: identity 99; images 80, 81

contact printing 18

content 79

context 55, 73

control 124

Courbet, Gustave 76, 146

Crewdson, Gregory 82 -3

criminal studies 124, 125, 130

cyanotype process 14


D-L

D

Daguerre, Louis-Jacques Mande 16, 17, 22, 81

daguerreotypes 16-18, 17, 30, 31, 40-2, 41, 81

Darwin, Charles 128

Davidson, Bruce 136, 137

de Boulogne, Duchenne 130, 131

de Meyer, Baron Adolph 116, 117

Debord, Guy 87

decisions 48

‘decoding’ 50

defamiliarization 64, 65

Demachy, Robert 1 58, 159

democracy 28, 29

denotation 53, 66-7

diCorcia, Philip-Lorca 136

digital photography 6, 8, 33,39,42, 85

Dijkstra, Rineke 105

directorial mode 82-3

documentary photography 71,105,160

domestic photography 32-3

Dove campaigns 11 3-14, 115

dry plate photography 30, 38

Duchamp, Marcel 4 7, 152, 155

Dworzak, T. 103

E

encoding ideology 61

environmental portraits 100, 105

Erwitt, Elliott 51

essentialist notions 99

ethics 7 4, 136, 142-3

Evans, Walker 123, 146

exoticism 34

expression in art 1 50

Eyck, Jan van 13

F

facts 80-9

family occasions 32-3, 58, 59

fantasy and fashion 11 7

fashion photography 116, 117

fiction 80-9

film cameras 38, 39

fine art 28, 166; see also art

fixing meaning 62

flash photography 78

form 79

Foucault, Michel 124, 132, 134

Fox Talbot, William Henry 14, 18, 19, 1 58

Frank, Robert 79

Frederick, Matt 78, 79

G

Gallon, Francis 128, 130

Garanger, Marc 118-21

gazes 106-9; see also looking

gelatin plate photography 30, 38

gender: gazes 108, 109; identities 108-9, 118-21

genre 55

Gilden, Bruce 88, 89

Glass, Zoltan 26, 27

Goldberg, Jim 56, 57

Google Street View project 140, 141

grammar 48

Guevara, Che 96

H

heliographs 16

Hoepker, Thomas 90-3

hyperreality 8 7

I

iconic signs 52, 66-7

the ideal body 112, 113

ideas 58-65

identity 94-121, 127, 134,175

ideology 58-65, 70, 121

illusion 69, 77

images: construction of 80, 81; language and 48-9; manipulation of 80, 84, 85; ‘ … speaking for themselves· 120; see also pictures

indexical signs 52, 66-7

individualism 134

intending meaning 62

interpretation and truth 73

invention in photography 12-1 9

J

K

Kessels, Erik 7

Kodak cameras 32

Korda, Alberto 96

L

language 46, 48-9

Lavery, Lisa 15

Levine, Sherrie 152, 1 75

lies 68-93; see also truth

light: inventions with 12, 14; time and 20-5

Loan, General Nguyen Ngoc 72-4

looking 106-9, 122-43, 150


M-R

M

McCullin, Don 86

Mccurry, Steve 104

madness 130, 131

magic and myth 6

‘making strange’ 64, 65

Man Ray 14

manipulation: images 80, 84, 85; scenes 86

Marey, Etienne-Jules 22-3

The Matrix (film) 70, 71

Mayall, John Jabez Edwin 31

meaning 8, 44-67; fixing 62; intending 62; making 47; origins of 46-7

measuring the body 128, 129

memory 24

Meyer, Baron Adolph de 116, 117

Michelangelo 29

mobile phones 38, 39

modem history 124-9, 156-69

modernism 160, 164, 169, 175

MoMA see Museum of Modern Art

Morath, Inge 162

movement 22-3, 128, 129

mug shots 126, 127

Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York 162, 163, 169

Muybridge, Eadweard 22-3, 23, 128, 129

myth and magic 6

N

‘native’ traditions 34

negatives 18

Neususs, Floris 14

New York 78, 90-3

Newhall, Beaumont 1 56, 1 63

news photography 26; see also photojournalism

Niepce, Joseph Nicephore 16, 17

‘normal’ view 58

O

objectivity 71, 105

obvious meanings 61

‘optical unconscious’ 24

optics and chemistry 12-1 9

Orwell, George 132

the other 130, 131, 134

Owens, Bill 58, 59

P

painting 146-7, 175

Panopticon (Bentham) 132, 133

Parr, Martin 35, 68

people and portraits 96-9

perceptual apparatus 70

photograms 12, 14, 15

photography: as art 1 56-69; definitions 11-43; not as art 148-51; uses and applications 26-37

photojournalism 26, 36-7, 71, 160

phrenology 128, 130

physiognomy 128, 130, 131

pictorialism 158, 159

pictures: reading 97; in texts 56, 57; see also images

points of view 58, 71, 150

Popova, Irina 138, 139

popular photography 30-3

portraits 13, 30, 96-1 05

positives 18, 19

postmodernism 164, 169-70, 1 71

practices, ideology 58-65

privacy 136-41

public spaces 136-41

Puranen,J orma 147

Q

R

ready-mades 154, 155

see also Duchamp, Marcel

‘real’ bodies 114, 115

‘real life’ 88, 89

realism 76-8, 80

reality 6, 68-93, 114, 115

‘referents’ 51

representation and reality 7 4-9

rhetoric 48

Riis, Jacob 36, 37, 78

Robinson, Henry Peach 81

Roesink, Sarah 144

Ruscha, Edward 166, 167


S-Z

S

Salkeld, Richard, works 2, 3, 21, 52, 53, 63, 148, 149, 1 52, 153, 164, 165, 17 4

Sander, August 105

scene manipulation 86

Scruton, Roger 148, 150

self-consciousness 97

semiotics 8, 44-67; identity and 97, 100-5, 110, 118-21; postmodernism 170; see also signifiers/signifieds

sex/sexuality 1 08

‘shadow catchers’ 14

Sherman, Cindy 42, 43, 82, 175

signifiers/signifieds 51, 52, 57, 66-7,87, 100-5

signs see semiotics

Sistine Chapel 29

Smith, April 135

social change 36

Soth, Alec 150, 151

sounds 48-9

speed camera sign 46

spying 123, 139

see also surveillance

Steichen, Edward 156, 157, 163

Stezaker, John 154, 155, 175

Stieglitz, Alfred 160

stillness 22

stop-motion images 25

‘straight’ photography 1 58, 160, 161

strangeness 64, 65

street photography 88, 89, 100, 104, 136, 140, 141

studio portraits 30, 102, 103

style 79

subjectivity 71, 105

surveillance 124, 132-4, 136, 140, 142; see also spying

symbolic signs 52, 66-7

Szarkowski, John 163-4, 169

T

Tagg, John 124, 127-8

Talbot, William Henry

Fox 14, 18, 19, 158

Tate Gallery 168, 169

terrorist threats 134

texts, pictures in 56, 57

theory, use of 8

time and light 20-5

transparency 77, 80

truth 12, 20, 26, 68-93

U

unconscious mind 24

V

van Eyck, Jan 13

Vertov, Dziga 122

Vietnam War 72-4, 86

Villevoye, Roy 101

voyeurism 123-4, 128, 136, 139, 142

W

Wall, Jeff 10, 82, 83, 175

Walski, Brian 85

Warhol, Andy 94, 95, 152

wedding photographs 32, 33

Western perceptions 34

wet collodion process 18, 38

Winogrand, Garry 79

words 48-9

world: changing 36, 37; seeing 34, 35

World Trade Centre, New York 90-3

Wunder, Karl Friedrich 30

XYZ

Yezhov, Nikolai 84, 85

Yokomizo, Shizuka 142-3