Modrak, Rebekah

Reframing photography: theory and practice

Modrak, R. & Anthes, B (2011) Reframing photography: theory and practice. Oxford: Routledge.

ContentsIndex

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Contents

List of figures
Preface
Acknowledgments
Online resources

Part 1 Vision

Theory 1: Seeing. Perceiving, and Mediating Vision

Photography and the anatomy of sight
Conventions of seeing
Mediated vision: Photography and optical devices
The viewer as distant or enmeshed observer: The camera obscura The natural eye: Direct experience and photography
Nineteenth-century viewing devices and their optical legacy
The camera as mechanical eye
New views: Experiments in space and time

Practice 1: Vision: Tools, Materials, and Processes

Exploring human vision
The camera as viewer
The camera as recorder

Part 2 Light and Shadow

Theory 2: Light and Shadow

Introduction
The void
Writing with light
“Light is radiation”

Qualities of light
The symbolism of light and dark
Modern light and shadow
Reflection, shadow, and the self
Projected light
Shadow plays

Practice 2: Light and Shadow: Tools, Materials, and Processes

The source of light
The path of light
Light’s terminal point

Part 3: REPRODUCTIVE PROCESSES

Theory 3: Copying, Capturing, and Reproducing

Possessing the subject: The photographic copy
Mass media and reproduction
Mass reproduction and artworks
Reproduction and ethics
Reenacting as a photographic act

Practice 3: Reproductive Processes: Tools, Materials, and Processes

Low-tech positives and negatives
Rubbings
Infinite ways to generate images
Recording images: Film and digital sensors
Digital sensors
Filters
Processing images: Developing film
Small tank film processing
Black and white film processing
Evaluating negatives
Printing images: Traditional processes
Black and white photographic paper
Black and white print processing
The Photogram
Printing a context sheet in the darkroom
Non-silver and historic processes
Screen printing
Processing digital images: Digital workflow
Adobe Bridge
Adobe Lightroom
Pr•inting images: Digital printing
Color management
Digital printing: Printing black and white on a color printer
The digital contact sheet
Other printing options
Reproducing photographs with other materials

Part 4: EDITING, PRESENTATION, AND EVALUATION

THEORY 4a: Series and Sequence

Introduction
Pictures at an exhibition
Typology
The body in the archive
Images in sequence
The passing of time
Documenting artistic process
Photo books
Slide shows
Motion
Sculpting with time

THEORY 4b: Text and Image

Introduction
Is a picture worth a thousand words?
Telling a story: The documentary tradition
Selling the story: Picture magazines and the photo essay
Personal stories
Questioning the story
Instructions
peech
Pictures of words: A forest of signs
Word as image
Photomontage

Practice 4: Editing, Presentation, and Evaluation: Tools, Materials, and Processes

Editing: Resizing digital images
Digital tools: Adobe Photoshop Tools panel
Contrast and tone
Adjusting image contrast in the darkroom
Digital tonal adjustments
Levels and curves
Adjusting brightness locally: Burning and dodging
Color
Digital color casts
Digital color corrections
Color conversions: Toning and handcoloring print effects
Print retouching techniques
Digital photographic retouching
Photo-based collage
Culture jamming and collage
Content and form
Image appropriation and copyright concerns
Handmade collage
Digital collage
Using text with photographs
Handmade and alternative typesetting
Creating text in the darkroom
Integrating text and images digitally
Special techniques for working digitally with type and images
Presentation
Mounting, matting, and framing
Constructing a light box
Photography on the internet
Animating photographs
Evaluation

Glossary
Index


Index A-C

A

Abbott, Berenice 205, 365, 373-4, 373

Abramovic, Marina 210

abstraction 36-8, 186, 339, 344

accent lighting 139

Acconci, Vito 336, 337

accordion books 449

acetate filters 159

acetone transfers 221, 224

acrylic lifts 221, 223, 228-9

active theory of vision 4

active vision and eye movements 6-9, 47

acutance see sharpness (acutance)

Adams, Ansel 10,124, 125, 179

Adams, Eddie 208-9, 208

Adamson, Robert 14, 15

Adbusters Media Foundation 379

additive primaries 240, 242, 404

adhesives for collage 428-9

adjustment layers 304, 306; and collage 432, 437; and handcoloring effects 415-16; Levels and Curves 395-400, 402-3, 407-9; and retouching 418

Adobe Bridge 89, 93; contact sheet 306-8; naming and renaming files 287; panels and panes 286; processing images 284, 285-9, 293; workspace interfaces 286-7

Adobe Camera Raw 93, 285, 289, 295-6; White Balance tool 243-4

Adobe Lightroom: catalogs and collections 89, 290-1; Library module 289; panels and panes 289-91; processing images 284-5,289-93

Adobe Photoshop:
Batch Processing 466, 467-8; and bit depth 393; Blur functions 62-3, 99-100; collage techniques 430-8; col or conversion 41 0-12; color working space and color management 302-3; depth of field adjustment 97-100; film positives for screenprinting 280-1; flipbook creation 466-8; Full Screen Mode 406-7; image transfer techniques 225; Info panel 394-5, 406, 408; Layers panel 430-8; Lighting Effects 160-2; opening image files 289, 293; Photo Filter 243; rescaling and resampling images 382-4; retouching tools and techniques 417-23; Ruler Tool and image straightening 92-3; Save for Web files 456; selection tools 385-90; soft proofing 303-4; tools panel 384-90; type layers 431, 442; and zoom images 65; see a/so adjustment layers

Adobe RGB color space 237

advertising: and artworks 376, 378; “highway hypnosis” 47-8; and LIFE photo essays 359; and mass reproduction 185-6; and Pop Art 193-4; silhouettes 136; and visual communication 370

African-American photography 125-6, 363-4, 367-70

afterimages 33, 38

Agassiz, Louis 368

Agee, James 355, 356-7

agitation and processing 253, 266

Alberro, Alexander 365

Alexander, Darsie 339

Alhazen of Basra 28

Alloway, Lawrence 194

Alpern, Merry 41, 41

Alton, John 148

amber filters 241-2

ambient light 16

Amercican landscape photography 23-4,

25-6

Amerika, Mark 461

Amundson, Garth 61

anamorphic art 25

ancient world and linear perspective 17

Anders, William 45

angle of view and lenses 65-7, 271

animation and handheld devices 462-9

Antin, Eleanor 344-6, 345

Antoni, Janine 207

aperture 5, 94-7, 103; and depth of field 10, 95-7, 124; enlargers 269,273; settings 95-7, 104, 273

aperture control ring 82, 95

aperture plate in pinhole camera 79, 81

aperture priority mode 95, 153

appropriation 42, 43; ownership issues 376, 425-7; see also collage

aqueous humor 50

Arb us, Diane 11 7, 322

architecture: and human body 329; and light 116; projected images 129-30, 165; sequence photographs over time 335-6

archival inks and papers 300, 306

archives: archiving digital images 284-5; series of photographs 321-3, 327-9, 354-5, 364

Aristotle 28

armatures 132

Arnheim, Rudolph 119

Arslan, Wendy Shaw 446

artificial light 117, 123-6, 140, 142-6; see also flash; spotlights; tungsten light

artists’ books 332, 333, 338, 445-6

artists’ statements and critiques 4 72

art photography see fine art photography

artworks: Guerrilla Girls’ critique of art world 366-7; photographic series and evaluation 319-20; and reproduction 173-5, 190-5, 319,371-2; web-based artworks 455, 460-1; see also fine art photography

assemblages 335

astronomers and camera obscura 29

Atget, Eugene 42, 205, 324

Atkins, Anna (nee Children) 113

atomic bombs and ban on photographs

200-1

aura and uniqueness of artwork 172-3,

181

authenticity and reproduction 172-5, 194; and documentary tradition 364-71; interactive conceptual art 371-2; limited prints 178-9; Native Americans as photographic subject 201-2; reenactment and recreation 204-15; and war photography 211-14

Auto Colar Correction tool 406, 407-9

auto exposure bracketing 157

autofocus (AF) mode selection button 86

autofocus (AF) points 61

automatic cameras: light meters 153-4;

shutters 1 01, 102

automatic exposure lock (AE) 61 , 153-4

automatic film loading 83-4

automatic flash 143

automatic focus 60-1, 71, 85

automatic mode 88, 95, 101; exposure meters 153-4

avant-garde movements 10, 111; mass reproduction and advertising 186; mass reproduction and collage 190-3, 377; photography and visual arts 42-4; and photomontage 377; see also Cubism; Dada; Surrealism

B

background: and selection tools 385; as subject in photographs 10-11, 12

back lighting 117, 139

backlit button 157

backup copies of files 293

Bajakian, Kyle 205

Baird, John 456

Baldessari, John 15-16, 15, 16, 19, 19, 195

barn doors 143, 149

Barrett, Terry 469-71

Barsamian, Gregory 132, 132

Barthes, Roland 320, 346, 349, 350-1, 354-5, 373

Barth, Uta 10-11, 10-11, 12, 58

base lighting 117

base materials and liquid emulsion 276

Batchen, Geoffrey 28-9

Batch Processing 466, 467-8

battery installation: digital cameras 86; SLR cameras 83

Battle of Orgreave reenactment 214-15

Baudelaire, Charles 40

Baudrillard, Jean 321

Bauhaus 43, 44, 45, 186, 191

Bayer, Herbert 180, 186

Bazin, Andre 171

BBC: In Pictures webpage 189-90

Bearden, Romare 191,191

Beat Movement 334

Becher, Bernd and Hilla 323-4, 323, 326

Beck, Kim 451

Belin, Edouard 187

Bellion, Wendy 134

Bellmer, Hans 121-2, 121

bellows 42, 43

Benjamin, Walter 43, 172-3, 319

Berger, John 173

Bertillon, Alphonse 136, 327

Bicubic options and resampling 383

Bien, Sylvan 116

Billboard Liberation Front (BLF) 379-80, 380

billboards and artworks 378, 379, 380, 424

binaural recordings 31

Bini, Benedetta 128

bipolar cells in human eye 51

Biran, Franc;:ois-Pierre Maine de 33-4

bit depth: and file format 87, 236-7, 393; and scanned images 91; and tonal correction 392-3

Black and White adjustment layer 306, 411-12

black and white film 230; and color of light 238; development process 251-7; evaluation of negatives 258-61, 269, 270; filters 241; image production 231; printing process 263-7; retouching prints 417

black and white image conversion 41 0-12

black and white printing on color printer 306

blank negative problem 259-60

Bleckner, Ross 114

blindness and newly gained sight 13, 14

Block, Gay 363, 363

blogging 7 4, 188-9, 361

“blooming, buzzing confusion” 31

Bloom, John 110,111,130

Blossfeldt, Karl 324, 324, 326

blue filters 240, 241, 242

blue toners 409, 410

Bluetooth and cellphone images 77

Blurb.corn print on demand site 450-1

Blur Filters 422-3

blurred images: art photography 10-12, 58, 72; digital editing 62-3, 99-100, 422-3; and motion 103

Boccioni, Umberto 190

body in photographs 327-32, 367-70

Boltanski, Christian 132, 133, 195

bookbinding 445, 446-50

BookSmart software 450-1

books and presentation 338, 445-51

bottom lighting 139

bouncing light 141, 142, 149-50;

homemade bouncers 152

Bourke-White, Margaret 355-6, 356, 361

Bouts, Dirk 18, 18

bracketing 156-8

Brady, Matt 193

Brady, Mathew 183, 211, 212

brain and human vision 50-1

Brakhage, Stan 109

Brand, Bill 464

Brassai 329

Brewster, Sir David 33

Bridge see Adobe Bridge

brightness: burning-in and dodging 400-3; evaluation of digital images 395; and light source 145-6, 161-2

Broadcast News (film) 212

Broad Foundation 367

Brown, (Lancelot) “Capability” 23

Brush tools 418-19

Bryson, Bill 175

bubbles in emulsion coating 278

Bubley, Esther 121, 121

Buchman and Kahn 116

Buckius, Sarah 160, 434-8

Bucklow, Christopher 109

built-in flash units 85, 143

bureaucracy: text and images 349

Burke, Edmund 110

burning and burning-in technique (darkroom and digital) 274, 392, 400-3

Burn Tool 401-2

Bushaw, Gordan 204

Butler, Judith 330

Butor, Michel 327

buxey, k r 404

Byrne, David 341

Byrnes, James 199-200

C

C-41 color negative development process 244

Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, The (film) 129

cable release 101

Cage, John 111

Cahun, Claude (Lucy Schwob) 329-30, 329

Cai Guo-Qiang 114-15, 114

Caldwell, Erskine 355-6, 361

calibration of monitor 301-2

Callahan, Harry 36-7, 45

Calle, Sophie 210, 331, 332

calotype 3, 28, 113, 412

camera bodies and parts 78-94; cleaning 58, 78

camera formats 68-78

camera lid in pinhole camera 79

camera obscura 1, 28-33, 34, 137;

homemade construction 52-3

Camera Raw see Adobe Camera Raw

cameras: as recorders 68-104; as viewers 52-68; see a/so digital cameras; single lens reflex (SLR) cameras

Cameron, Julia Margaret 9

Caravaggio 119-20

Cardiff, Janet 29-30, 30-1, 210

Carey, Benedict 211

Carra, Carlo 190, 190

Carr, David 200

cartes-de-visite 182-3

Cartesian model of vision 33, 34

Cartier-Bresson, Henri 8, 71, 329

Casati, Roberto 124

Cassidy, Melanie Iii

Cassirer, Ernst 19

Castelli, Leo 367

Castleman, Shannon Lee I

cave paintings and linear perspective 17

CCD digital sensors 233, 236

CDs for digital image storage 293, 311

cellophane filters 159

cellphone cameras 42, 74-7, 189-90

censorship: war photography 199, 200

Cerf, Vint 340

Cezanne, Paul 35

charging digital camera batteries 86

Charlesworth, Sarah 195, 320-1, 320

chemicals for processing: black and white film 253-5; black and white prints 265-7; handling and storage 245-8, 266, 270

Chen Chieh-Jen 207, 207

Cheng, David 178

chiaroscuro 117, 121, 122

children and shadow 126-7

Christenberry, William 334, 335-6

Christianity: light and dark 119-20, 1

Christopher, Nicholas 120, 121

chromogenic film 230

Church, Frederick 23

Chwatsky, Ann 94

Cibachrome paper 113-14

cinema: advent of motion pictures 131: collage and fantasy 193; Sherman’s recreated images 207; symbolism of light and dark 118, 122, 129; see also film noir; motion pictures

cinematography 120, 139, 163

circles of confusion 59-60, 95, 96-7

civilian journalism 189-90

Civil War photography and reenactment 211-14

clamps 150,281

Claude Lorrain 22, 22

cleaning: camera and lens 58, 78; negatives 273, 275

clear negative problem 259-60

clipping and digital images 394, 396

clipping masks 434, 443, 444-5

Clone Stamp tool 402,418,419

cloning 177-8

Clothier, Ian Ii

CMOS digital sensors 233, 236

CNN: multiple screen options 47

Coborn, Alvin Langdon 109

cold-tone papers 264, 299

Cole, Thomas 23, 23

collaboration of writer and photographer 354,355-7

collage 6-9, 17; Blossfeldt’s working collages 324, 326; Dadaism 26, 42, 191; digital collage techniques 429-38; handmade techniques 427-9; Hackney 6-8, 9; and mass reproduction 190-3, 377; Neimanas 8-9; photo-based collage techniques 423-38; photomontage 191, 376-80; Siskind 38

Collins, James 19

Collins, Lisa 368

collodion, wet-plate 182, 278

Colombik, Roger Ii

color: color film and image production 231; conversion techniques 409-16; and digital images 243-4, 296-7; and digital sensors 236, 237; editing techniques 404-16; filters and gels 158-62, 166, 240-2; Impressionist painting 36; and light 147-8, 237-44, 404-5; perception and camera obscura 33; projected images 146; and reflected light 141, 142, 405; see also filters

color balance: digital images 405-6; film 230, 238, 239; and filters 241-2

color casts 148, 238-9; correction for digital images 239, 243-4, 404, 406-9; and digital editing 405-9; and digital printing 306; evaluation 405-6

color compensating filters 242

color conversion filters 241

color film 230; filters 241-2; image production 231; retouching prints 417

color management: digital printing 296-306

color profiles and digital printing 297, 302, 303-5

Color Range command 390

Color Sampler tool 395, 407-9

color shift and paper/ink permanence 300

color space 237, 302-3, 311, 456

color temperature 115, 147, 238, 243

color wheel 240, 404-5

color working space 302-3

combination prints 11 0

combing in digital images 394

commercial photographic printing 308-14; handcoloring service 412

commercial printing presses 310

communication: speech and image 372-3; visual communication and advertising 370

compact cameras see point-and-shoot cameras; small-format cameras

composite images: contact printing 271-2

composition 15; breaking conventions 15-16; early photographs 14-15

compression of files 87, 235; and file format 76, 236, 294, 456; and resolution 235,311

computers: and digital printing 261, 296-308; sending images 76-7, 298; see also Adobe programs

Conceptual Art 324, 338, 371-3

conceptual units: series as 323

condenser enlargers 263

cones 8, 9, 51

connotation 351

Conrad, Tony 111

Constructivism 186, 191

consumerism: mass reproduction and advertising 185-6; and Pop Art 193-5; see also advertising

contact paper lifts 228, 229

contact printing 10, 12, 221, 222, 228, 261-2, 269-72; composite images 271-2

contact sheets 218, 269-72; digital contact sheets 306-8

continuous light 142-3

continuous shooting option 86, 102

continuous tone images 234, 235, 298

contours and vision 11-12

contrast 116-17; digital editing 392-3, 436-7; editing for contrast and tone 390-403, 436-7; and enlargement 275; evaluating black and white negatives 258-9; film editing 390-2; and intensity of light 138; photographic papers 264, 391-2; projected light and contrast ratio 146; see also tone

contrast filters 241,273, 391-2

controls 94-104; digital camera 85-6; SLR camera 82-4

conventions of seeing 13-16; breaking conventions 15-16; linear perspective 17-27

converting digital image files 295-6

copies see photographic copies

copyright and appropriation 376, 425-7

cornea 4, 50

Cornille, Zenobie 462

Costello, Caitlin 52

Craft, Andrew 20

Crary, Jonathan 19, 28-9, 33, 48

Creative Commons (CC) 427

crescent shapes 261

Crewdson, Gregory 109, 122-3, 122

Crimp, Douglas 176

critique methods 469-73

cropping and textual meaning 376

Crop tool 389-90

Cubism 186, 423

“culture jammers” and collage 379-80, 424

Cummins, Rebecca 31, 31

Cunningham, lmogen 10, 124

Curtis, Edward Sheriff 201-2, 201, 203

curved film plane and pinhole camera 80

Curves: and color cast correction 407-9; and tonal adjustments 395, 396-400

custom lab printing 309-10

cyanotypes 113, 221, 222, 278, 279, 364


D-H

D

Dada 26, 42, 113, 191, 371, 377, 423-4

Daguerre, Louis Jacques Mande 29, 112, 113,184,192

daguerreotypes 28, 29, 184-5, 368, 412

darkness: light and dark symbolism 118-23; see also light; shadow

darkrooms: burning-in and dodging techniques 400-1; contact printing 269-72; enlargements 272-5; liquid emulsion processing 275-6; printing text on images 441; wet darkrooms 245, 261-3

Daviau, Allen 121

Day, F. Holland 9

daylight see natural light; sunlight

daylight film 238, 243

Debord, Guy 359

DeCarava, Roy 125-6, 322

decisive moment 8, 71

dedicated lenses 64

delete button 86

deleting digital image files 287-8, 291

Deller, Jeremy 213, 214-15

Dempsey, Shawna 360-1, 361

denotation 351

density: enlargements 27 4; evaluating black and white negatives 258-9, 270; negatives 218-19, 223, 231

depth of field: and aperture setting 10, 95-7, 124; and focal length 66, 96; and focus 57, 60, 95-8

Descartes, Rene 3; Cartesian model of vision 33, 34

description and technique 470

desktop printers 298

developers: film processing 253-4, 256, 259; liquid emulsion processing 276, 277; photographic paper and image tone 264; print processing 265, 266, 267

developing film 244-61; unorthodox methods 344

Dezallier d’Argenville, Antoine-Joseph 24

diagrammatic information 371-2

Dibbets, Jan 34, 34

Dickinson, Emily 375

Diderot, Denis 29

diffuse light/diffusers 138-9, 143, 150; homemade diffusers 152

diffusion enlargers 263

digital cameras: body and parts 84-6; care and cleaning 78; and color of light 237-44; focal length 63; focus and softening images 61-3; instant cameras 7 4; and interchangeable lenses 64, 65; LCD viewfinders 54-5, 86, 88; light metering and exposure 153; operation 86-9; sensors see digital sensors; shutter speed 101; viewing systems 55, 56-7, 85, 88; see also digital images; digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras; point-and-shoot cameras

digital editing 382-90, 401-9, 415-23; Adobe Photoshop Tools panel 384-90; burning-in and dodging techniques 401-3; collage techniques 429-38; color casts and correction 239, 243-4, 404, 405-9; color conversion 410-12; contrast and tonal adjustments 392-400; photographic retouching techniques 417-23; resizing 382-4, 466,467; text and image integration 441-5, 459; see also adjustment layers

digital images: and bit depth 87, 236-7, 392-3; color cast correction 239, 243-4, 306, 404, 405-9; color conversion 410-12; file size 92, 235; organization and processing 284-96; processing and storage time 102; reproduction and reality 178; saving and formatting files 76, 285, 293-6, 308; storage and organization 89, 284-5, 288-9, 292-6, 307; straightening images 92-3; see also digital editing; digital printing; file formats

digital lighting effects 160-2

digital printing 261, 296-308; black and white on color printer 306; color management 296-306; commercial printing options 308-14; and digital workflow 284-96; flip book 468; monitor regulation and viewing conditions 300-2; paper/ink performance 299-300, 303-4, 304-5; see also printers and digital printing

digital projectors 144

digital resizing 382-4, 466, 467

digital scanners 77-8, 89-91, 261

digital sensors 57, 96, 229, 233-7

digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras 56,64, 84-9, 88,236,237

digital workflow 284-96

digital zoom 65

Dijkstra, Rineke 116-17, 116

Dill, Lesley 375, 375

Dingus, Rick 204

diopter controls 54

direction of light 116, 117, 138-40, 166

direct light 141, 148, 166

direct-to-press (DTP) printing process 310

Disderi, Andre Adolphe 182

dissolve as film technique 346

dissolve units and slide shows 339

distortion: curved film plane and pinhole camera 80; lighting 166

distribution of light 138-9, 148-52

Dixon, Keetra 313-14, 313

ONG file format 295

documentary photography 180; and authenticity 364-71; as objective record 352-7; social documentary style 37-8, 44-5; see also photojournalism

Dodge Tool 401-2

dodging (darkroom and digital) 274, 392, 400-3

Dog Day Afternoon (film) 211

Doisneau, Robert 329

doppelganger (double) 127-8

dot matrix and reproduction errors 176

double lens system 56

downloading images 77, 88-9

downsampling 383

dpi printer resolution 298, 305

drive mode button 86

Drucker,J ohanna 445

drugstore photo processing 309

drum scanners 78

Drutt, Matthew 122

drying negatives 257

dry-mount process 452

DuBois, W.E.B. 119

Duchamp, Marcel 195

Duke, Jonathan B. 79

Dunning, Jan xlviii

duotones and digital images 411

duplicate files 466

Durer, Albrecht 18

Durrant, Arjuna 27

dusk 123

Dust & Scratches filter 421

dust spots on image 78,275,416,418, 421

DVDs for digital image backup 293

dyes: color film 231, 232; dye-based printer inks 298, 299, 300; dye sublimation printing process 309, 312; spotting technique with liquid dyes 416, 417

dynamic range: and sensors 237; and tonal adjustment 394

dynamic vision see active vision

E

Earthworks/earth art 25

Eco, Umberto 206-7

Edgerton, Harold 131

Edison, Thomas Alva 124, 131

editing and presentation 317-476; color editing techniques 404-16; editing for contrast and tone 390-403; photo-based collage techniques 423-38; presentation of text and images 445-69; retouching techniques 416-23; series and sequence photographs 319-48; text and image 349-80; text and image integration techniques 438-45, 459; see also digital editing; evaluation

editions of prints 178-9

Egyptian art and linear perspective 17

Eiffel Tower 45

Einstein, Albert 343

Eisenberg, Anne 178

Elander, Ashley 39

electric lighting 124

Eliade, Mircea 209-10

Eliasson, Olafur 115-16, 115

emailing images 76, 88-9

Emerson, P.H. 9, 124

Empire (film) 346-7

emulsions 35, 111; film 231; historic photographic processes 278-9; liquid photographic emulsions 275-8; photographic paper 263-4, 391; removers 281, 283; silkscreen printing 280, 281, 282-3

engraving and mass media 185, 357-8

enlargement 125; and depth of field 96; and digital sensor size 234; printing process 261, 262, 263, 269-70, 272-5

enlargers 263, 269-70, 273, 276, 391

ephemeral artworks 337-8, 371-2

Eraser tools 421

Erbsen, Wayne 191-2

Ernst, Max 377

errors in reproductions 175-6

Eskimo landscapes 11

ethics and reproduction 177-8, 196-204; emailed images 190; Google Street View 197-8; legal rights of photographers 196-7

Euclid 4

Euclidean geometry 24

evaluation: color cast 405-6; critique methods 469-73; evaluating negatives 258-61, 269, 270; exposure and light metering 152-8, 242; feminist critiques 321, 329-30, 366-7; and series of photographs 319-20; tonal range and contrast 393-5, 397

Evans, Walker 176,176,177,355, 356-7, 365

experience: and sight 13-14, 33-8, 46; see also personal experience

exposure 5, 6, 35; aperture and shutter speed 102, 103, 104; burning-in and dodging 400-3; and contact printing 270; and density and contrast in negative 258; and enlargements 274-5: and filters 242; and home-made pinhole camera 81; latitude 233; light metering and evaluation 152-8, 242; liquid emulsions 277; and movement 32, 336-7, 341; and natural light 141-2; screenprinting 282-3; and tonal corrections 392, 393

exposure compensation 157

exposure compensation buttons 86

exposure meters 153-4, 242

Expressionism: German Expressionist films, 120, 129; and photography 12, 36-8

Eyedropper tool 390,395,408

eyeglasses 27-8

eyes and vision 1, 3-48; active vision and eye movements 6-9, 47; anatomy of sight 3-5, 12-13, 49-52; camera as mechanical eye 41-5; conventions of seeing 13-16; experience and photography 33-8; focus 9-13; inventions and new photographic views 45-8; photosensitive cells 4-5; threshold of vision and circles of confusion 96-7; see also optical devices

Ezawa, Kata 209, 209

F

f/64 group 10, 124-5

fabric-based printing paper 276, 299

Facebook 183-4

fade as film technique 346, 347

fading of prints 278

Fairbanks, Charles 262, 424

Fair Use Doctrine 425-7

Family of Man exhibition 321-2, 323

Farina, Julia 446

Farm Securities Administration (FSA) 121, 354-5, 364

Farokhzad, Furough 375

Fechner, Gustav 33

Federal Art Project (FAP) 373-4

feminist critiques: and art photography 321, 329-30; Guerrilla Girls’ and art world 366-7

femme fatales 121

fi5e (artist) 130

fiber-based printing paper 264, 266, 276, 409

field large-format cameras 71

file compression see compression of files

file formats: and bit depth 87, 236-7, 393; for commercial printers 311; and compression 76, 235, 236, 294, 456; reformatting files 295-6; saving and formatting files 76, 285, 293-6, 308; and shutter speed and motion 102; types of format 87-8,2 94-5; for web display 456

file management 284-96; editing and duplicate files 466; importing files 287, 290, 291, 459; storing digital image files 89,284-5, 288-9, 292-6,307

file size 92, 235

Filimowicz, Michael Iii

fill layers 432

fill light 117,141,149

film 229-33; adjusting image contrast 391; characteristics 232-3; and color cast 239, 243; developing see film processing; digital printing of 310; loading for development 245, 249-51; loading into camera 83-4; size and format 230; storage and handling 230-1; types of film 229-30; see also black and white film; color film; darkrooms; film processing; negatives; prints; single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras

film advance lever on SLR camera 82, 84

film noir 116, 117, 120-1, 163

film picker 249

film plane in pinhole camera 79, 80, 81

film processing 244-61, 344; black and white film processing 251-7; chemical handling and storage 245-8, 279; evaluating negatives 258-61, 269, 270; printing and enlarging film 261-79; small tank film processing 248-51; work areas 244-5; see also printing

film rewind knob 82

films see cinema

film scanners 77-8

film speed (ISO): bracketing by ISO number 158; and characteristics of film 232-3; digital cameras 85, 88, 235-6;

digital sensors and high/low settings 235-6; and light meters 153, 154; setting 82, 83, 85, 88, 235-6

filter factor 242

filters 158, 160, 166, 240-2; commercial filters 159; contrast filters 241, 273, 391-2; correcting color cast 239, 243; digital lighting effects 160-2; and enlargers 273; and exposure 242; homemade filters 151, 159; split filtration 392,400

Filter tools 421, 422

fine art photography xlviii-lii; authenticity and reproduction 178-9; blurred images 10-12, 58, 72; handcoloring 412; processing images 124-5; reenactment and recreation 204-11 ; series and sequences 319-48; soft-focus in early images 9, 72; text and image 351-2, 360-80; use of historic processes 278-9; value and reproducibility 179-81

Fischer, Wend 323

Fischli, Peter 339, 339

fixed images 231

fixed lenses 64

fixer remover washes 254-5, 257, 265-6, 277-8

fixers 254,256, 267, 276,277

Flagg, Ernest 11 6

flash: as artificial light source 143, 144; bouncing light 149-50; built-in camera units 85, 143; digital camera options 85; effect 117; external flash units 143, 149-50; front lighting 138; softboxes 150, 151

flash buttons on digital cameras 85

flash drives 89, 311

flash exposure control 143

flashguns 123-4, 353

flatbed scanners 33, 77, 89-94

flat lighting 138

flattened layers 304

Fletcher, Zeke 202, 203

“flicker films” 109

flip books 132, 464-9

fluorescent light 147, 242

flutter books 449

Fluxus 195, 371

focal length 63; and depth of field 66, 96; film plane and pinhole camera 80; and interchangeable lenses 64, 65-7; and motion 102

focal plane shutters 100

focal points 57, 59, 97

focus: and anatomy of eye 9-13; composite contact sheets 272; and depth of field 57, 60, 95-8; and enlargement 275; and lens 57-67, 85; out-of-focus art photography 10-12, 58, 72; Rangefinder viewing systems 56; and still photographs 9-11; see also shutter release buttons

focus (AF) points 61

focusing light 149, 150

fogging: negatives 260-1; photographic paper 262,263,267

folders and digital images 288, 290

folk art 1 91-2

Fontcuberta, Joan 370-1, 370

Foote, Nancy 333, 344

foreshortening and perspective 18

Foresta, Merry 207

Forkscrew Graphics 136, 136

formal(ism) 22

formats see camera formats; file formats

Formiguera, Pere 370

Foucault, Michel 326

found objects and art photography 337

found photographs 132, 133,194,340

fovea 13, 51 ; and focus 9-13

Fox, Howard 345-6

Fox, William L. 205, 205

Fox Talbot see Talbot, William Henry Fox

frames: Gestalt theory and “weak frame” 15

framing environment 22-7

framing prints 451, 453

Frampton, Hollis 341, 343

Frank, Robert 16, 368

Franz, Marie-Louise von 129

Frelinghuysen, Jessica 51

Freud, Sigmund 48, 122, 132, 181

Friedlander, Lee 129

Friis-Hansen, Dana 370

front lighting 138, 141

FSA photographic archive 121, 354-5, 364

F/stops 5, 95

Fuji instant cameras 74

“full-frame 35mm sensors” 234

Fuss, Adam 113-14, 113

Futurism 190, 191

G

gain 164, 236

Gallagher, Winifred 115

Gaitan, Francis 135-6, 327

ganglion cells in human eye 51

Ganze\, Bill 205

Ganzfelds 11-12

Garb, Yaakov Jerome 46

gardens 8, 22-3, 26

Gardner, Alexander 205, 211, 212

Garvens, Ellen Iii

Gaskell, Anna 109, 122, 122

gas lighting 123, 124

gaze 18, 19

Gee, Helen 37

gelatin filters 158, 159, 160

gender: critique of press coverage 321;

and performative art 329-30; see also

feminist critiques

General Idea 360

Genetic Savings and Clone 178

genetics and photographic reproduction 175-9, 217

genre painting 9, 110

geometry: and landscape 22, 23-4; and linear perspective 17-21

Gerlovina, Rimma 374,374

Gerlovin, Valeriy 374, 374

German Expressionist films 120, 129

Gernsheim, Alison 28

Gernsheim, Helmut 28, 112

Gestalt theory and composition 15

“ghoul” lighting 139

GIF file format 294, 456

Giles, Howard 214

Gilliam,Terry 346

Gillmor, Dan 189

glass filters 159

Gleber, Conrad 464

glossy papers 264, 299, 391

glues for collage 428-9

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 33, 34

Goffman, Erving 198

Gogh, Vincent Van 35

Goldin, Nan 339-40, 339

Gonzalez-Torres, Felix 180-1, 180

Google Earth 47

Google Street View 197-8

Gordon, Douglas 195

Gothic style 120

Gour, Pierre 275, 275, 278

Gowin, Emmet 178-9

graded papers 264, 391

Gradient tool 399-400

graduated filters 241

graffiti artists and stencils 440

Graham, Dan 195, 323, 325, 326-7, 339

grain 10, 158, 423

grain size 232

grassroots journalism 189

gray cards 1 54-5

grayscale digital images 410-11

grayscale printing 306

Great Depression 354-7

Grech, John 21 O

Greenberg, Clement 190

Gregory, R.L. 4

grids: focusing light 149; grid format in art photography 323, 324

Grill, Tom 15, 15

Groover, Jan 344,344

Grosz, George 42, 191

Ground Glass viewing system 55, 57, 71

Group f/64 10, 124-5

grouping digital image files 288, 290

Guerrilla Girls 366-7, 366

Guggenheim Fellowship 125

gum bichromate 124, 192,193,278

Gursky, Andreas 324

H

Haacke, Hans 195

Hadden, R. Lee 213

Hahn, Betty 192-3, 192

Hajj, Adnan 461

halftone printing 125, 185, 187, 358

Hamilton, Ann 5, 5

handcoloring techniques 412-16; digital effects 404, 415-16; traditional techniques 404, 412-15

handwriting and images 360, 364, 372, 439-40

Hansen, Markus 210-11, 210

Hasselblad cameras 46

Hausmann, Raoul 191

Hawkinson, Tim 21-2, 21

Healing Brush tool 418, 419-20

Heartfield, John 42, 191,377,377

Heiferman, Marvin 182

Heinecken, Robert 195

Heisler, Mary Kate 453

“heliographs” 112

Helman, Pablo 193

Hess, Thomas B. 38

Heyl, Henry 131

high-contrast lighting 117

High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR) 156-7

high-key lighting 116-17

highlight areas: burning in and dodging 400-3; digital images 394; negatives 219,258,259,391

high-speed photographs 130, 131

high-speed printing 305

“highway hypnosis” 47-8

Hildebrandt, Megan 66-7

Hill, David Octavius 14, 15

Hillers, John K. 204

Hine, Lewis W. 35

Hines, Babbette 312

hinge mounts 452-3

Hiroshima: ban on photographs 200-1

histograms 155-6, 396; Histogram panel 393-5

historical reenactment and reproduction 211-15

historic processes 278-9

Hitchcock, Alfred 122

Hoch, Hannah 42, 191

Hockney, David 6-8, 7, 12, 17

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 172

Hondros, Chris 20, 200, 200

Honnef, Klaus 194

hooks, bell 367

Horan, David 375

horizon 16, 1 7, 45-8

Horner, William George 463

Horton, Kristan 207,207

hot-air balloon flight and view 45

“hot pixels” 236

hots hoe brackets 82, 85

Howett, Catherine M. 22

Hudson River School 23

Huebler, Douglas 324

Hughes, Langston 125

human body in photographs 327-32, 367-70

humanist letterforms 438

human vision 3-5, 12-13, 49-52

Hunter, Jefferson 355, 356

Hushlak, Gerald Ii

Huxley, Aldous 12-13

Huygens, Christian 131

Huyghe, Pierre 210, 211

hyperlinks and webpage creation 460

hypo see fixers

hypo clearing baths 265-6, 276, 278


I-P

I

ICC (International Color Consortium) profiles 297, 302, 306

icons 351

identity: gender and performativity 330

illuminated manuscripts 349

illustrated magazines see picture magazines

image detail and tonal adjustment 392

image-editing software: and flatbed scanners 89-93; see also Adobe Photoshop

image layers 431

image planes 57, 59-60

image preview systems 57

image quality options 235

image resolution: cellphone cameras 75-6; dpi printer resolution 298, 305; and file size 235; and pixels 234-5; projectors 146; and quality of prints 311; rescaling images 382-3; scanners 91

image servers 77

image transfer and rubbing techniques 217-18,223-9

Image World exhibition 182-3

importing digital image files 287, 290, 291, 459

Impressionism and photography 34-6

incident-light meters 152, 155

index: photograph as 351

indirect light 149

industrialization: and perception 35-6; and reproductive technologies 184-5, 190; work ethic and photography 39; see also machine aesthetic; urbanization

Info panel 394-5, 406, 408

information processing and speed of images 47-8

inkjet printers 224, 298, 306, 309

inkjet tranfer process 224, 225

inks: digital printing 299-300, 304-5; paper/ink permanence 300; screenprinting 281

ink sets 306

innocent eye and perception 35-8

Input sliders 396, 397-8, 402

installation art 115-16, 132, 344-6, 370-1, 378-9; slide shows 339

instant (lnstamatic) cameras 73-4, 326; see also Polaroid instant cameras

instructions: text and image 371-2

intensity of light 138, 148, 166; see also light metering

interactive conceptual art 371-2

interchangeable lenses 64-6

International Shadow Project 115, 115

international style 44-5, 116

Internet: blogging and photo sharing 188-9, 361; and communication 372; copyright and appropriated material 426-7; presentation of photographs 454-61; print-on-demand sites 450-1; social-networking sites 183-4; speed of moving images 47; truth and photographs 461-2; Window Standpoint Series 20, 20

interpretation and critiqe 4 70

Iraq War 184, 200

iris 4, 5, 50

Irwin, Robert 24, 24, 36

ISO see film speed (ISO)

ISO buttons on digital cameras 85, 88

ISO dial on SLR cameras 82, 83

Italy see Renaissance

Ivins, William M. 175

iWeb and webpage creation 457-61

J

Jackson, William Henry 23, 204

Jacob, Mary Jane 132

Jarhead (film} 193

Javanese shadow plays 131

Jay, Martin 20

Jefferson, Thomas 23

Jetee, La (film) 346

John, Franz 32-3, 32-3

Johns, Jasper 195

Johnson, Ray 195, 195

Joselit, David 133-4

Josephson, Ken 206

JPEG file format 87, 102, 235,236,237, 293,294,456

judgment and critique 470-1

Jung, Carl 118-19, 129

Jussim, Estelle 19

K

Kahns, Sven 102-3, 103,402

Kalin-Casey, Mary 197-8

Kanarek, Yael 461

Kasebier, Gertrude 1 09

Kasten, Barbara 117

Kelvin scale 147,238

Kentridge, William 40, 41

Kepler, Johannes 21

key lighting 117, 148

keystoning 14, 15; keystone correction 145

keywords and labeling files 288, 292

Khan, Osman and Omar 75

Kienholz, Edward and Nancy Redin 195

Kim, Atta 335, 336-7

kinetoscope 132

kiosks and digital printing 311-12

kite pictures 46-7

kitsch 190, 193

Klett, Mark 204-5

Kline, Katy 330

Kodak small-format cameras 68

Koestler, Arthur 38

Koons, Jeff 34 7

Korn, Arthur 187

Kostova, Daniela 165, 165

Krages II, Bert P. 196

Krauss, Rosalind E. 176-7

Kruger, Barbara 195, 378-9, 379

Kumao, Heidi 457, 459-60

Kushner, Boris 43

Kwon, Miwon 181

L

labeling digital image files 288, 292

lab photo processing 309-10

Lacan,Jacques 18, 46, 47

Laforgue, Jules 35-6

Landau, Chris 462, 462, 464, 464

Land Ordinance Survey of America 23-4

landscape and photography 22-7

Landworks Studio 423

Lange, Dorothea 44

lantern projectors 144

Lan Ying 26

large-format cameras (view cameras) 10, 12, 35, 41-2, 71; fine art photography 124-5, 324; Ground Glass viewing system 55, 57, 71; specification 72

large format printers 298

laser printing in commercial outlets 310

lasso tools 387-8

latch-hooking: reproducing photographs 314

latent image on film 231, 400-1

lateral geniculate bodies 51

latitude of film 233

Lavater, Johann Caspar 134-5

layer masks 432, 436

Layers panel 430-8; see also adjustment layers

LCD screen (live view) viewing system 55, 56-7, 85, 86, 88; and cellphone cameras 74

LCD viewfinders 54-5, 86, 88

Lee, Alex M. I

Lee, Anthony 329

Lee, Nikki S. 207

Lee, Whitney 314,314

legal rights of photographers 196-7

Leica small-format cameras 71

lens-based photography 333

lenses 5; care of 58; cellphone cameras 75; enlargers 269, 273; and filters 240; and focus 57-67, 85; human eye 4, 5, 50, 51; SLR cameras 56

lens release buttons 85

Leonard, Joanne 193, 193, 427

Leonardo da Vinci 18, 21

Levels and tonal adjustments 395, 395-6, 402-3

Levere, Douglas 205

Levine, Sherrie 176-7, 176, 195, 376

Levitt, Helen 322, 322, 323

Lewin, Albert 128

Lewis, C. Thomas xlix

Lewitt, Sol 324, 371

L’Heureux, Antoine Ii

Libera,Z bigniew 209, 210

Lichtenstein, Theresa 128

LIFE magazine 186, 188-9, 201, 208; photo essays 358-61

light 107-68; and art 113-16; color 147-8, 158-62, 237-44, 404-5; direction 116, 117, 138-40, 166; distribution 138-9, 148-52; and early photographs 111-13; and film speed 232; and filters 240; and human vision 50; intensity 138, 148; metering see light metering; movement and manipulation 148-52; natural and artificial light 117, 140-6; path of light 147-52; physical effects 115-16; source of light 137, 138-40, 161-2, 281,390; symbolism of light and dark 118-23; terminal points 162-7; texture 117; and tone 393; and void 11 0-11, 114; see also artificial light; color; contrast; lighting; natural light; shadow

light balancing filters 241-2

light boxes for presentation 453-4, 455

lighting: color manipulation 158-62; in darkroom 245, 262; direction 139-40, 166; monitors and viewing conditions 300; movement and manipulation of light 148-52; qualities and effects 116-18, 120-1, 138-9

lighting stands 150

light metering 104, 117; bracketing 156-8; evaluation of exposure 152-8, 242; and filters 242; natural light 141-2

Lightroom see Adobe Lightroom

light sensors and cellphone cameras 75

Ligon, Glenn 368-70, 369

limpet: visual pit 4

Lincoln, Abraham 183

linear perspective and sight 17-27; Renaissance perspective 17-21, 24

linear zoetrope 464

Link, O. Winston 118, 118

liquid dyes and spotting technique 416, 417

liquid emulsions 263-4, 275

liquid lenses and cellphone cameras 75

Liquid Light see liquid emulsions

liquid photographic emulsions 275-8; processing and printing 276-8

lithography 112, 310, 357-8

loading film: for development 245, 249-51; into camera 83-4

long exposure times 32, 35

long lenses (long focal length) 66

Longo, Robert 376

lossless (lossy) file compression 294

Loud, Lance 220, 221-5

low-contrast lighting 117

low-key lighting 117, 120

low-resolution images 234, 235, 311

low-tech positives and negatives 218-29

Luce, Henry 188, 357, 358, 359

lumens 145

Lumiere brothers 131

L0tticken, Sven 215

Lyon, Luke 203

M

Mach, Ernst 21, 21

machine aesthetic 9, 10, 186, 190

Maciunas, George 195

McLuhan, Marshall 372

McQueen, Steve 322, 322, 323

macula 51

magenta filters 240, 242, 391

magic lantern slides 48, 131

Magic Wand tool 385, 388

Magnetic Lasso tool 387-8

magnification 65-6

Mager, Liz 212,213,213

mail-order photo processing 309

main light 148

Malevich, Kasimir 110, 111

Malraux, Andre 320

Manichean concept of light and dark 119

manipulation of light 148-52

ManosBuckius Cooperative 62, 63

Manovich, Lev 215

manual bracketing 157

manual control: digital cameras 88; SLR cameras 82, 85

manual film loading 83-4

manual focus 60

manual focusing ring 82

manuals 85

Mapplethorpe, Robert 130, 368-70

Marien, Mary Warner 212

Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso 190

Marker, Chris 346

marquee tools 386-7

Marshall, Michael 205

Martin, Charles E. 191

Masayesva, Victor, Jr. 201, 203-4

masks and text creation 441

mass reproduction 182-95; and artworks 190-5, 319,377; mass media and reproduction 182-90, 357-8; rubbings in China 219

Matsushige, Yoshito 201

matte papers 264, 299

matting prints 451, 453

Maynard, Patrick 112

McCarthyism 37

Mccausland, Elizabeth 352, 373

McCloud, Scott 320

McConnell, Liza 39-40, 40

McGehee, Cordelia 268

meaning: text and image 353-7

Meatyard, Ralph Eugene 12, 12, 58

mechanical reproduction: profiles and silhouettes 134, 166

media: influence on memory 211; mass media and reproduction 182-90, 357-8; photographic series and mass media critique 320-1; see also cinema; press mediated vision 46; and optical devices 27-33

Medici, Lorenzo de’ 22

medium-format cameras 71

megapixel 233

Mekas, Jonas 111

memory: reenactment and recreation 209, 211; and sight 13-14

memory cards: cellphone cameras 76, 77; digital cameras 86, 87, 233, 235

memory-card slots 86, 87

memory size: cellphone cameras 76; digital cameras 87, 235

Mendoza, Cristobal Ii

Mendoza, Tony 362-3, 363

menu buttons 86

Mercer, Kobena 368-9

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 350

Messager, Annette 330-1, 331

metadata in Photoshop programs 288, 290,292

metering light see light metering

Meurer, Moritz 326

Meyer, Richard 369

Michals, Duane 332-3, 332, 351-2, 351

Microsoft PowerPoint 340-1

“middle-distance gardens” 23

middle gray 154-5

middle tones 117

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig 116

Millan, Lorri 360-1, 361

Millman, Toby 225, 280

minimalism 180, 181

mini-projectors 145

missing image data 394

Mitchell, William J. 27

mixed light 142

mobile blogging 74

mobile phones see cellphone cameras

modeling lights 143

modernism 9; photography and visual arts 42-4, 122, 124-5; and postwar advertising 186

modern letterforms 438

Modrak, Rebekah 428

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo 42-3, 43, 44, 186

Moholy-Nagy, Lucia 43

Molderings, Herbert 44

MoMA Department of Photography 179-80

momentary light 143

Monet, Claude 35, 35

monitors: calibration 301-2; and color cast correction 405-6; and viewing conditions 300-2

monorail large-format cameras 71

montage see collage; photomontage

Moody, Rick 123

Moore, Michael 214

Moore, Sarah J. 8

Morimura, Yasumasa 207-8, 208

Moro, Aldo 321

Morris-Cafiero, Haley I

Morse, Samuel 184

Mo-Ti 28

motion pictures 131; still photographs as 344-7; see a/so cinema

mounting prints 451-3

movement / moving objects: long exposure times 336-7, 341; manipulation of light 148-52; motion and sequences 341-6; panning 103; and pre-focusing 61; and shutter speed 102

Move tool 388

moving digital image files 287-8, 291

“mug shots” 327

multiple images: contact printing 271-2

Mundy, Owen xlix

Muniz, Vik 208-9, 209, 210

muscles in eye 50

Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) 179-80

Muybridge, Eadweard 23, 26,131, 341-3, 342-3, 344

Mydans, Carl 200

mylar filters 159

MySpace 183, 184

N

Nachtwey, James 200

Nagasaki: ban on photographs 200-1

naming digital image files 287, 291

Nam Jun Paik 111

narratives 3; and photographic sequence 320, 333, 340; in stereoscopes 40-1; text and image in personal stories 361-4

NASA life on Earth photographs 322

Native Americans and photography 201 -‘1

native resolution 146

natural light 117, 140, 141-2; color and film and digital sensor settings 238; color temperature 147; and filters 241; movement 148

Nature Print paper 279

Nautilus: pinhole eye 4

Nazism 122, 328, 377

negative films 230

negative images 218, 221, 222, 223

negatives: drying and storing 257; evaluation 258-61, 269, 270, 391; Fox Talbot’s paper negatives 3, 113; text integration techniques 441

Neimanas, Joyce 8-9, 8, 12, 17

Nee-Conceptual art 372-3

nerve fibers in human eye 51

Neshat, Shirin 375-6, 375

Nettles, Bea 330, 330

Neumann, Andrew xlviii

neutral density filters 241

neutral papers 264, 299

Newhall, Beaumont 179

newspapers: collages and wall-coverings 190, 191; see also press

New Vision style 43-5, 324

Niepce, Joseph Nicephore 112, 113, 117

Nierendorf, Karl 324

night photography 118, 158

Nixon, Nicholas 204

Nizza, Mike 184

Noble Savage representation 20

no-focus photography 12

“noise”: digital editing 423; and digital sensor size 234, 235; and ISO number 88,158,236

nonlinear transformations and tonal adjustments 395-400

non-silver processes 278-9

Nordhougen, Lauren 39

normal focal length lenses 66

O

objectivity and photography 350-7, 364-71

Oetterman, Stephen 17, 45

offset printing 310

oils: paper positives in screenprinting 281; photo oils and handcoloring 412-14; see also wintergreen oil transfers

on-camera softboxes 143, 151

Ong, Walter J. 378

on/off switch 83, 85

opaque projectors 144

opening camera back 83

open shade 141

open space and landscape 25-7

optical devices 1-2; altering human vision 51-2; camera obscura 1, 28-33, 34; handheld animation devices 462-9; mediated vision 27-33; 19th-century devices and legacy 38-41

optical viewfinders 54, 55, 56, 86

optical zoom 65

optic chiasma 51

optic nerve 50, 51

oral culture 372, 378

Ording, Charlotte 265, 410, 410

organization of digital image files 284-96

Orozco, Gabriel 337, 337, 338

Ostberg, Anders 20, 20

ostranenie 42, 44

O’Sullivan, Timothy 23,204,205, 211-12

Otsuka Museum of Art, Japan 173-5

Oursler, Tony 372-3, 373

Outerbridge, Paul 185, 186

out-of-focus effect: art photography 10-12, 58, 72; digital images 62-3

overcast weather 140, 142

overexposure 233, 258, 270; and digital tonal adjustment 393, 394; evaluation and metering techniques 152-3, 156, 157, 158

overhead lighting 139

overhead projectors 144

Owens, Bill 361-2, 362

ownership: and appropriation 376, 425-7; and value of art works 180-1

P

Paik, Nam Jun 111

painting 9, 34-6, 110, 349; and linear perspective 1 7

Painting tools (digital) 418-19

Palmer, John 306

Palmquist, Peter 23

panchromatic film 238, 241

panning 103

Panofsky, Erwin 21

panoramas 1 7, 342

panoramic lenses 65

pantographs 134

paper: for rubbings 220; see also photographic paper

paper adhesives for collage 428-9

paper/ink permanence 300

parallax error 54, 55, 56

Paris, Dr. John 462

parody and appropriated material 425-6

Parr, Martin 338

parts of camera 78-94

passivity of photographic act 3-4

patches on negative 261

Patch tool 41 8, 420-1

path of light 147-52

Patzsch, Albert 326

Pavlovic, Vesna xlix

PDF file format 295

Peale, Charles Wilson 134-5, 199

Peirce, C.S. 129

“pencil of nature” 3

pencils and handcoloring 412

Pen tool 388

perception 1, 13-14, 33-8, 337, 343; and anamorphic art 25; innocent eye approach 35-8; and time 343

performance art 329-30; photographic documentation 337-8

persistence of vision 33, 34, 38, 132, 462

“persona”: gender and identity 330

personal experience: art photography sequences 330-2, 339-40; text and image and personal stories 351-2, 361-4

personalized web pages 454-5, 457-61

perspective: composite contact sheets 271; and focal length 66, 67; see also linear perspective and sight

Peters, Betsy 464, 464

Pfahl, John 19, 19, 24-5, 24, 25

Pfeiffer, Paul 195, 347-8, 348

Phillips,C hristopher 179,1 80

Phillips, Lisa 321

photo-based collage techniques 423-38

photobooks 323, 338

photobooths 312-14

photocopiers 77-8, 192-3, 218, 220-9

photo corners 452

photo essays 188-9, 357-61

“photogenic drawing” 113

photograms 43, 44, 94, 113, 268-9

photographic copies 171-81; authenticity and reproduction 172-5, 194; variation in reproductions 175-6

photographic paper: black and white

printing 261, 263-7; characteristics 263-5, 299; and contrast 264, 391-2;

digital printing 297, 299, 304-5; and handcoloring techniques 412, 413;

Nature Print 279; paper/ink permanence 300; and toning process 409-10

photogravure 185

photojournalism 3, 4, 20, 186-9; writer and photographer collaborations 354, 355-7; see also documentary photography; photo essays; war photography

photo kiosks and digital printing 311-12

photometry 75

photomontage 191, 376-80

photo oils and handcoloring 412-14

photo pencils and handcoloring 412

photo printers 298

photosensitive cells 4-5

photo sharing 188-9, 454, 456-7

Photoshop see Adobe Photoshop

photo-telegraphy 187

physiognomic studies and silhouettes 135-6

physiognotrace 134, 135, 166

Piaget, Jean 126-7

Pictorial ism 9, 72, 109, 110, 124, 179

Picture of Dorian Gray, The (film) 128

picture magazines 47-8; advertising and photography 186; and mass reproduction 186, 188-9; photo essays 357-61; recreation of images 208-9

Piezography inks 306

pigment-based printer inks 298, 299, 306

Pina, Rachel 340

Pina, Tina 340

Pindell, Howard 133

pinhole aperture 79

pinhole cameras 5, 6, 53, 72-3; component

parts 78-81; and focus 58-9, 60; home

construction 73, 80-1

pinhole eye of Nautilus 4

Pippin, Steve 344, 344

Pirenne, M.H. 9

Pissarro, Camille 35

pixels: pixel count and scanned images 91; rescaling and resampling images 382-4; and resolution 234-5; and sensor size 233-4

plastic gift-wrap filters 159

Plateau, Joseph 33

Plato 4; cave allegory 33, 109-10, 121,137

playback button 86

Pliny the Elder 134, 137

PNG file format 456

point-and-shoot cameras: and artistic process 337; automatic focus 60, 71, 85; body and parts 84-6; image formats 236; Instamatic cameras 326; lenses 64, 65; operation 86-9; shutter speed 101; viewing systems 54, 57, 85

points of focus see focal points

points of view: kite pictures 46-7; smaller cameras and experiments with 42-3; and viewing systems 55

polarizing filters 240-1

Polaroid instant cameras 7 4; Polaroid 600 and collages 6-7, 8-9

politics: and mass reproduction 183-4, 377; and photomontage 377, 378-9

Polke, Sigmar 175, 176

Pollard, Kate Ii

Polygonal lasso tool 387

Pop Art 193-5, 280, 424

Pope.L, William 337, 338

portable cameras see small-format cameras

portable hard drives 89

Porta, Giovanni Battista della 29

portraiture: human body series 327-9

Portzamparc, Christian de 116

positive films 230

positive images 218, 280-1

posterization 394

post-exposure viewing system 55, 73

Postman, Neil 187-8

postmodernism 176-7, 206-7, 424

post-studio art 337

Poussin, Nicolas 22

Powell, Richard J. 191

power pack for flash heads 144

PowerPoint presentations 340-1

power switches 83, 85

practical lighting 117

pre-focusing 61

preparation: and SLR camera operation 83-4; surface preparation 276, 412

Prepared Medium Solution (PMS) 412,413

presentation of text and images 445-69

press: and mass reproduction 185, 357-8;

photo essays 357-61; photographic series as critique 320-1; photojournalism 186-8; see a/so photojournalism; picture magazines; war photography

pre-wetting 255-6

Prince, Richard 195, 376-7, 376

print culture 186-7, 187-8, 372, 378

print on demand (POD) books 445, 450-1

printers and digital printing 297-300; black and white on color printer 306; print profiles 297, 300, 302, 303-5

printing: commercial photographic printing 308-14, 412; and contrast papers and filters 391-2; digital images see digital printing; errors and variation in reproductions 175-6, 194, 34 7; fine art photography 124-5; Industrial Revolution and new technologies 184-5; non-traditional processes and art photography 363-4; as reproductive process 125; screen printing 194-5, 279-83, 34 7; traditional processes 261-83, 466; work area for printing from film 245; see also contact printing; film processing

printmaking 112

print profiles 297, 300, 302, 303-5

prints: presentation 451-3; retouching techniques 416-17; toning process 404, 409-10

print sizes and commercial printing 310

privacy and art photography 332

processing images: developing film 244-61, 344; digital images and digital workflow 284-96; reproducing photographs in other materials 314; see also digital printing; printing

professional lab photo processing 309-10

“profile machines” 134

profiles: color profiles and digital printing 297, 302, 303-5; paper/ink print profiles 300,303

programs see Adobe programs

projected images: artists’ slide shows 339-41; in public spaces 129-30, 165 projection screens 163-5; illumination ratio 145-6; materials and formats 164-5; reflectivity 163-4 projectors as light source 143-6, 161-2; image quality 145-6

property and value and art photography 180-1

PSD file format 295

psychology: light and dark symbolism 118-19

public opinion and mass reproduction 183

public space: ethics and photography 197-9; and projected images 129-30, 165

pupil 4, 5, 50

push processing film 259


Q-Z

Q

Quick Mask Mode 389-90

Quick Selection tool 388

Quinn, Alana 80, 220, 224

R

Rabinowitz, Paula 121

racial difference: human body in photographic archive 327-9, 368; symbolism of light and dark 119, 133-4

Ramirez-Jonas, Paul 25, 46-7, 46-7, 114, 114

Rangefinder viewing system 55, 56, 85

ranking digital images 288-9, 292

Rank, Otto 128

Rauschenberg, Robert 111

RAW file format 87, 102, 235, 236, 237, 293; reformatting files 295-6

Ray, Man 113

Raymond, Alan and Susan 220

readymades 195

Realism 120

reality and art photography 206-8, 344

Reasoner, Kathryn 33

recording images 229-44; digital scanners

and photocopiers 77-8; digital sensors 233-9

red-eye reduction option 143

reenactment and recreation as photographic acts 204-15; use of antique photographic processes 278; using other materials 314

referents 351

reflected colors 141,142,405

reflected-light meters 153, 154-5

reflecting light/reflectors 141, 142, 143, 149, 150; homemade reflectors 152

reflectivity: objects as terminal points 163; projection screens 163-4

reformatting digital files 295-6

Renaissance: gardens 22-3; paintings and text 349; Renaissance perspective 17-21,24

renaming digital image files 287, 291

Renger-Patzsch, Albert 44, 44

rephotography 176-7, 204-5, 208-10; text and image 363-4, 368-9, 376-7

reproductive processes 125, 169-215; ethics and reproduction 177-8, 196-204; low-tech positives and negatives 218-29; mass media and reproduction 182-90, 357-8; mass reproduction and artworks 190-5, 319, 377; mechanical profiles and silhouettes 134, 166; photographic copies 171-81; reenactment as photographic act 204-15; see also printing; processing images

rescaling and resampling digital images 382-4

resin-coated (RC) printing paper 264, 266

resistance: Native Americans and photography

resizing digital images 382-4, 466, 467

resolution see image resolution

retina 4, 5, 9, 33, 51

retinal afterimages 33, 38

retouching techniques 416-23; digital retouching 417-23; retouched photographs 324; traditional print retouching 416-17

rewinding film 82, 84, 249-50

RGB values: and color spaces 237, 302, 303; Info panel and digital editing 406, 408

Rice, Shelley 330

Riis, Jacob 117, 123-4, 131, 352-3, 353, 355,365

Rilke, Rainer Maria 375

rim lighting 139

ritual and reproduction 172-5

Robinson, Henry Peach 109, 110, 110, 320

Rodchenko,Alexander 42-3,42,44,44

rods 8, 9, 51

Roecklein, Anne 424, 424

Roeder, George H., Jr. 200

Ronduda, Lukasz 210

room-sized camera obscura 52, 53

Rosier, Martha 195, 365-6, 365

rotating digital images 288, 291-2

Roth, Emery and Sons 116

rotogravure prints 377

Rozier, Pilatre de 45

rubbing techniques 219-20; image transfer 217-18, 223-9

rub-on letters 440

Ruff, Thomas 324

rug kits and reproducing photographs 314

Ruscha, Ed 323, 324, 332, 332

Russian avant-garde and photography 42-4

S

Saar, Betye 133

Sachfotographie 44

Sacks, OJiver 13, 14

safelights in darkroom 245, 262

Salignac, Eugene de 42

Salinger, Adrienne 117-18, 117

Samizdat movement 374

Sandberg, Carl 322

Sander, August 136, 322, 323, 324, 326, 327-9,327

Saussure, Ferdinand de 350

saving and formatting files 76, 285, 293-6, 308

Sawada, Tomoko 312

Sawyers, Ross xlviii

Scanlon, Mark 15

scanners: flatbed scanners 33, 77, 89-94; operation 90-3; recording images 77-8; scanograms 94; software for 89-93

scanograms 94

Schad, Christian 113

Schrader, Paul 120, 121

Schwitters, Kurt 38, 38

science: inventions and new views 45-8

scoop coaters 281

Scoopt agency 189

scratches on image 416, 418, 421

screen paint 164-5

screen printing 194-5, 279-83, 34 7

screens see projection screens

scroll buttons 86

Scully, Shawn 243, 412

searching for digital images 289, 292-3

“secondary orality” 378

Seed, Suzanne 46

Sekula, Allan 327

selection tools 385-90

selective focus lenses 61

selenium toners 409

self and shadow 126-9

self-timer function 86, 101

semiological systems 351

semiotics 129, 350-1

sending images 76-7, 298

sensa 12-13; interpretation of 13-14

sensors see digital sensors

sepia toners 409

series and sequences 5, 34, 319-48;

documentary tradition 354-7; human

body in series 327-32; motion and

sequences 341-6; photobooks 338;

sequences of images 332-8; series in

exhibition 320-3; slide shows 339-41;

time and sequences 335-7, 346-8;

typology series 323-7

Serling, Rod 123

Serrano, Andres 119, 120

“setback laws” and architecture in US 116

Severini, Gino 190

shade and natural light 141, 142

shadow: and artificial light 117, 124; burning-in and dodging 400-3; contrast 116-17, 258, 391; digital color correction 407-9; digital editing techniques 437-8; direction of light 138, 139, 140, 166; dynamic range 237; elimination 117; film noir lighting 120-1; negatives 218-19, 258, 391; practicalities of working with 166-7; symbolism 120-1, 122,126; see also darkness; light; shadows

shadow plays 131

shadows 111, 124; Plato’s cave allegory 109-10; and self 126-9; shadow play instructions 166-7; silhouettes 112, 134-6, 165-6; in theater and visual arts 131-6

shallow depth of field 95-6; creation in digital image 97-100

Shane (film) 118

Sharits, Paul 109

sharpness (acutance): digital editing 421-2; film 233; fine art photography 124-5; projected light 146; and shadow 167

Sherman, Cindy 206, 207, 346

Shklovsky, Viktor 42

Shonibare, Yoni 127-8, 127

shooting mode dial/toggle button 85, 88

shutter lag 75, 101, 102

shutter priority mode 101, 153

shutter release buttons 42, 101; digital cameras 85; SLR cameras 82, 84

shutters 5, 6, 100-4; pinhole camera 79, 81

shutter speed dial 82, 101

shutter speeds 100-1, 103, 104, 153

side lighting 138, 139

side-stitch books 44 7-50

sight see eyes; eyes and vision

signs: theory of 129, 350-1, 373; in urban landscape 373-4

silhouettes 112, 131, 132-6, 165-6

silkscreen printing 194-5, 279-83, 34 7

silver and film processing 246, 253

silver gelatin prints 124-5, 223, 275-8

silver halide processors 312

Silverstein, Geoff 429

simulation and reenactment 215

single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras 7, 29; body and parts 82; care and cleaning 78; interchangeable lenses 64, 65; lens and focus 60; and manual control 82, 85, 101; optical viewfinders 54, 55, 82; preparation and operation 83-4; shutter speed 101; viewing systems 55-6; see also digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras

Siskind, Aaron 36-7, 37-8, 37, 38, 45

site-specific video projection 165

6x6cm camera 32

sky filters 241

slide projectors 143, 144, 276, 277

slide shows 339-41

Sligh, Clarissa 363-4, 364

SLR camera see single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras

small-format cameras 42-3, 68-71, 101; specifications 70; see also point-and-shoot cameras

small tank film processing 248-57; black and white film processing 251-7

Smart Objects 434

Smith, Joshua P. 206

Smith, Roberta 329

“snapshot aesthetic” 337, 338

“snips”: genetics and photography 175-6

snoot 149

social documentary style 37-8, 44-5, 352-7; critique 365-6

Socialist Realism 374

social-networking sites 183-4

social science and Great Depression 354-7

softboxes 143, 150, 151

softening digital images 422-3

soft-focus in early images 9

soft proofing digital images 303-4

software see Adobe programs

Solnit, Rebecca 343

Solomon-Godeau, Abigail 44-5, 176, 177, 178-9

solvent image transfers 224-5

Sontag, Susan 3-4, 20, 39, 171, 175

sorting digital images 288-9, 292

source of light 138-40, 390; screenprinting 281; and terminal point 161-2

space: landscape and perspective 25-7

space travel and view 45-6

spectacles 27-8

Spector, Buzz 338, 338

specular lighting 138-9

speech: text and image 372-3, 378-9; verbal critiques 4 71-2

Spengler, Oswald 327

spirit photography 314

split filtration 392, 400

split-toning process 41 O

Spodek, Joshua 464

Spot Healing Brush tool 418,420

spotlights 117-18, 149

spotting technique 416, 417

spray mount adhesives 428

squeegees 281

sRGB color space 237

Stafford, Barbara Maria 29-30

stains on prints 267, 278

stamping techniques 440

stands 150

Stanford, Leland 341, 342-3

Stange, Maren 125, 126

Starn, Mike and Doug 195

start-up time and digital cameras 87

statements and critiques 472

Steichen, Edward 125, 179-80, 186; Family of Man exhibition 321-2, 323

Stein, Sally 48

stenciling techniques 440, 441

stereoscopic camera and images 38, 39, 40-1, 67, 172; homemade images and viewer 67-8

Stevens, Wallace 25-6

Stich, Sidra 122

Stieglitz, Alfred 9-10, 36, 36, 124, 333

still photographs: and focus 9-11; as motion pictures 344-7

stock photography 1 86

stock solutions 246-8

Stoichita, Victor 110, 129, 134, 135

stop baths 254, 256, 265

stops and shutter speed 102

storage: camera 78; chemicals 246, 247-8; film 230-1; negatives 257; photographic papers 264

storage space: and cellphone cameras 76; digital files 89, 284-5, 288-9, 292-6, 307; downloading images 88-9; memory cards and digital cameras 87, 233, 235

straightening digital images 92

straight photography 179

Straub, Rebecca 451

Strand, Paul 9, 10, 109, 124

street photography 126, 365

Street with a View 197, 197

strobe lights 143

Struth, Thomas 324

Stryker, Roy 121, 354-5, 364

studio lighting 35-6; flash lighting 144

Stump, Ulrike Meyer 324

subtractive primaries 405; and filters 240, 242

Sugimoto, Hiroshi 114, 114

sun 33, 34

sunlight 140,141,147

supernatural and symbolism of light 122

supplementary magnification lenses 65-7

surface preparation: handcoloring pencil colors 412; liquid emulsion 276

Surrealism 121-2, 186, 191, 329, 377, 424

surveillance and art photography 332

survey projects and rephotography 205

Susman, Warren 120

symbolism of light and dark 118-23

T

tableaux 121-2, 133, 332-3

tabloid journalism 360

Tagg, John 185, 189

taking pictures: digital camera 88; SLR camera 84

Talbot, William Henry Fox 14-15, 111-12, 112-13, 175-6; The Pencil of Nature 3, 14,113,113,182

tanks see small tank film processing

Tannenbaum, Barbara 12,113

Tanzillo, Michael 138-9, 140

Tasman, Marc 73

Taylor, Chris 25

telephoto lenses 96

television: speed of images 47, 48

Tenner, Edward 27

terminal covers 85

terminal points of light 162-7

testimony: documentary evidence 353

test strips: contact sheets 270; enlargements 273-4; liquid emulsions 277

text formatting 442-3

text and image 349-80; editing techniques 438-45; text in images 374-8, 459

textured papers 264, 276, 299

thaumatropes 38, 39, 462-3

35mm cameras 7; body and parts 82-4; focal length 63; as mechanical eye 41-5

35mm film 7; and digital sensor size 234

35mm slides 339-41

third-party inks 299-300

Thompson, Jenny 213-14

Thompson, Ryan I

Threshold tool 407, 408

TIFF file format 295

time: and composite images 272; and movement of light 148; and perception 343; rephotography and return to past 209-10; and sequences 320, 343, 346-8

time-lapse photography 342

Ting Huan 463

tints and digital images 411-12

Tobier, Nick 91-3, 312

Tobing Rony, Fatima 201, 203

Tolerance adjustment 388

tone 125; digital editing and correction 390, 392-400; dynamic range 237; editing techniques for contrast and tone 390–403; ink sets 306; photographic papers 264, 265, 299, 391-2; pixels and resolution 234; see also contrast

toning process: traditional print toning 404, 409-10

top lighting see overhead lighting

trace of objects in photographs 171, 351

Trachtenberg, Alan 172

Trachtenberg, Jason 340

Trachtenberg, Mark 340

Trachtenberg Family Slideshow Players 340

transfer letters 440

transitional letterforms 438

transparencies 299, 454

travel and new photographic views 45-7

tripods 42; studio lighting stands 150

troubleshooting: liquid emulsion prints 278; negatives 259-61; printing problems 267

truth and photographs 350-3, 357, 358, 364-71; images on Internet 461-2; see also authenticity and reproduction

Tuan, Yi-Fu 11, 19, 25, 26-7

Tudor, Andrew 118

tungsten film 238, 243

tungsten light 142, 143, 147, 241

Turner, J.M.W. 34, 34

Turrell, James 115

tweening 30, 31

twilight 123

Twilight Zone, The (TV series) 123, 346

type and images 438-45

type layers 431, 442, 443–4

typesetting 438-9

typologies: art photography grids 323, 324; human body and typologies 327-9, 368

U

Ueshina, Toshi 205

ultraviolet (UV) filters 240

umbrellas 149, 150

“uncanny” and visual arts 121-2

unconscious 129, 132

underexposure 152-3, 156, 157, 233, 258, 270; and digital tonal adjustment 393, 394

unfocused lens and art photography 12

universal file format 294

up-rating film 259

upsampling digital images 383–4

urbanization: and perception 35-6, 337; personal view of suburbia 361-2; series photographs 326-7; text and signs in urban landscape 373-4

Ut, Nick 209

V

VALIE EXPORT (Waltraud Lehner) 328, 329

Van Dyke, Ben 439, 441

Van Dyke Brown printing 193,278, 364

vanishing point and linear perspective 17

variable contrast filters 391, 392

variable contrast (VC) papers 264, 391-2

Variations tool 406-7

verbal critiques 4 71-2

Verburg, JoAnn 204

video art 347-8, 372-3

Vierkant, Artie xlix

Vietnam war 208

view cameras see large-format cameras

viewfinders 15, 53-7, 82, 86; cellphone cameras 74; viewing systems 55-7, 71, 74, 76, 85, 88; see also lens viewfinder viewing system 55, 56, 85

viewing devices and human vision 51-2

View-Masters 40, 67

viewpoints see points of view

vinyl letters 440-1

virtual reality and reenactment 215

vision: practical equipment 49-105; see also eyes and vision

visual cortex 51

vitreous humor 51

Vladimir 40, 41

voice: handwriting and images 360, 364, 372

void: absence and light 110-11, 114

Voss, Jan 464

voyeurism 40-1, 332

W

Walker, Kara 132–4, 133, 144

Wanner, Andres Iii

Warhol, Andy 220, 312; films 346-7; silkscreen printing 194-5, 194, 347

warm-tone papers 264, 299

warp command 443, 444

war and photography: ethics of reproduction 199-201; recreation of images 208-9; reenactment and authenticity 211-14; soldiers and social networking sites 184

Warren, Lynne 206

washing aids 254-5, 265-6, 277-8

water-based inks in screenprinting 281

water bath processing method 252-3

watercolors and retouching techniques 416

Watkins, Carletori 23, 23

Watney, Simon 44

Watts, Robert 195

Wearing, Gillian 372, 372

web-based artworks 455, 460-1

web portfolios 454-5, 457-61

Weegee 117, 365

Weekly World News 360

Weems,C arrie Mae 367, 368

Weimar period 122, 191

Weinberg, Jonathan 357

Weiss, David 339, 339

Weschler, Lawrence 7

Weston, Edward 10, 11, 36, 124, 176-7, 192,192,347

Weston, Kurt xlviii

wet darkrooms 245, 261-3

wet-plate collodions 182,278

wetting agents 255, 257

Wheatstone, Charles 39

White, Clarence 9

White, Minor 6, 12, 36-7, 333-5, 334, 339

white balance (WB) feature 86, 88, 239, 243-4

“white” light 237, 238, 240, 404

“Whole Earth” images 45-6

wide-angle lenses 66, 96

Wildrick, Kevin 280

Williams, Linda 40-1

Williams, Pat Ward 360, 360

Willis, Anne-Marie 178

Wilson, David and Diana 461-2

window: and linear perspective 18-20; and photographer’s perspective 41

Window Standpoint Series 20, 20

Winogrand, Garry 16, 16

wintergreen oil transfers 221, 223, 224-5, 226

wipe as film technique 346, 347

Wodiczko, Krzysztof 129-30, 130

Wojtowicz, John 211

Wolcott, Marion Post 191

Wolfe, Byron 205

woodcut image transfers 225-8; and mass media 185, 357-8

words and pictures see text and image

work areas for film processing 244-5

work ethic and taking photographs 39

working solutions 246-8

writers and photographers: documentary projects 354, 355-7

written critiques 473

written word see handwriting; text and image

Wurm, Erwin 371-2, 371

XYZ

Yamahata, Yosuke 200, 201, 201

yellowing and paper/ink permanence 300

Yokomizo, Shizuka 20, 198-9, 198

Young, Arthur 32

Zaloom, Paul 144

Zanuck, Daryl F. 358-9

Zealy, J.T. 368

Zen Buddhism 8, 12, 334

Zeno 343

zoetropes 38-9, 132, 463-4

“Zone System” 125, 192

zoom lenses 8, 64-5, 86; and cellphone cameras 75, 76

zoopraxiscope 343