Durden, Mark

Fifty key writers on photography

Durden, M. (2013) Fifty key writers on photography. Oxford: Routledge.


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ENTRIES

James Agee (1909-1955)
Malek Alloula (1937-)
Roland Barthes (1915-1980)
Georges Bataille (1897-1962)
Geoffrey Batchen (1956-)
Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867)
Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007)
Andre Bazin (1918-1958)
Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) 
John Berger (1926-)
Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002)
Brassai (1899-1984)
Victor Burgin (1941-)
Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908-2004)
Jean-Frarnçois Chevrier (1954-) Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) 
Lady Eastlake (1809-1893) 
Elizabeth Edwards (1952-) 
Peter Henry Emerson (1856-1936) 
Walker Evans (1903-1975) 
Vilém Husser (1920-1991) 
Gisèle Freund (1908-2000) 
Michael Fried (1939-) 
Clement Greenberg (1909-1994) 
Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894) 
bel hooks (1952-) 

Ian Jeffrey (1942-) 
Max Kozloff (1933-) 
Siegfried Kracauer (1889-1966) 
Rosalind E. Krauss (1941-) 
Carol Mavor (1957-) 
Kobena Mercer (1960-) 
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946) 
Daido Moriyama (1938-) 
Wright Morris (1910-1998) 
Beaumont Newhall (1908-1993)
Marcel Proust (1871-1922) 
Jacques Ranciere (1940-) 
Martha Rosler (1943-) 
Allan Sekula (1951-) 
Rebecca Solnit (1961-) 
Abigail Solomon-Godeau (1947-) 
Susan Sontag (1933-2004) 
Jo Spence (193-4-1992) 
David Levi Strauss (1953-) 
John Szarkowski (1925-2007) 
John Tagg (1949-) 
William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) 
Hemi Van Lier (1921-2009) 
Mike Weaver (1937-)


Index

One

A la recherche de temps perdu 185,186-87, 188, 189
A Way of Seeing 4-5
abjection 187-88, 256 see also death
absorption 115-16
abstract paintings 149, 152, 166
acti/passivity 79
activism 195, 20-1–5, 206
actors 31-32
Ades, Dawn 20
advertising 11, 112
aesthetics conscious concern for 229-30
empiricism 136
homesteads 179
introversion 140
marketability of 209
modernism 114-17, 190-91
photojournalism 111-13
politics relationships 44,1 90, 224-27
portrait painting 109-11
postmodern 210-11
race 131, 160
realism 177
Surreal mediums 214
tradition 251-52
tragedy 225-26
African diaspora artists 159-63
African-American experience 130-31
afterlife 36-37
Agamben, Georgia 188
Agee,J ames Rufus 3-7
Albaret, Celeste 186
Algerian writers 7-10
Alloula, Malek 7-10
Alloway Kirk, Scotland 126
amateur photography 83, 90, 196,222, 230-31, 248

American – 
art 119, 152
culture 5, 214
photography 140, 142-43, 149,176, 231-32
sensibility 230

anaesthetics 224
analogon 12-13
analogue formats 13, 24, 33, 47, 79. 256
anonymous works 173, 248
anthropological approaches 88, 89, 90, 91,209,246,247
anti-concept 150
apperception 142
appropriation 9-10, 160, 161, 195
Apter, Emily 211
Araki, Nobuyoshi 171
Arbus, Diane 215
archaeology 90
archives 29, 90
arrows 246-47

art –
aesthetics 111, 117
aura of visible phenomena 40
change in perceptions 44
conceptual 122
creative photography 73
culture 53-54, 195
legitimization of photography – –
obsolescence 214, 217
photography relationships 26. T-:83-84, 85, 120-21, 149
place and space 49
psychological theory 36
Victorian photographs 114

art history theory 21-25
Art on My Mind: Visual Politics 130, 132
Atget, Eugene 16, 41, 99, 111, 177, 232
audiences 27-28, 32
aura 40-44, 256
authors 62-63, 77, 215
automatic processes 37-38, 106
autonomy 114, 115
avant-garde 16, 23, 31, 119, 165, 167,190,233

Baker, Simon 20
Ballard,J G. 32
banal content 13, 54, 55, 56, 57, 145
barbarous taste 52-53
Barrie,J . M. 157

Barthes, Roland –
childhood photographs 130
death 24
essay on 11-15
formless 17
having been there 77-79, 80
memo1y 28-29, 72, 173-74, 207
mother figures 155, 157
personal involvement 9
Proust 185, 188
social integration 55

Bataille, Georges 15-21, 150
Batchen, Geoffrey 21-25
Bate, Francis 95
Baudelaire, Charles 26-30, 100
Baudrillard,J ean 30-35,2 16
Bauhaus 167
Bazin, Andre 33, 36-40
Bellmer, Hans 150-51
Bellour, Raymond 65
Benjamin, Walter 28, 31, 40-46, 62-63, 100, 110, 14 7-48, 215-16, 225
Bennett, Tony 54-55

Berger,John 46-51, 223-24
Between 63-64
Between the Eyes 224-25
Bhabha, Honu K. 160, 161
biblical analogies 206, 250, 252
bi trot 108
Boiffard, Jacques-Andre 16, 18
Bois, Yve-Alain 19
Bonhomme,Jean François 80
Bourdieu, Piere 51-56
Brandt, Bill 70, 137 
Brassai 56-61
Bravo, Manuel Alvarez 51
Breton, Andre 16, 70
bricolage of the soul 47
British photography 135, 161, 236
British-Nigerian photography 161
Buddhism 70
Bunnell, Peter 250
Burch, Noel 200
Burgin, Victor 61-66, 193, 236, 258
Burning with Desire 21-22, 23
Burns, Robert 126[spellchecked to here]

Calle, Sophie 33
Calotype 242, 248, 257
camera clubs 54
Camera Lucida 9, 12-14, 24, 29, 43, 55, 72, 78, 130, 155, 157, 173, 187, 207, 261 see also Barthes, Roland
Cameron, Julia Margaret 155, 250-51, 253,254
cannibalism of the sign 32
capitalism 11, 110
captions 28, 42, 101, 105, 141, 167, 177, 202
car crashes 32, 55
Carroll, Lewis 155
cartes-de-visites 257
Cartier-Bresson, Henri 66-71, 120, 181-82
Castiglione, Countess of 210
Chevrier, Jean-Franvois 72-76. 114
childhood 4, 5, 130
cinema 31-32, 36, 169 see also film
ciphers 253-54
class 52, 53-55. 54, 105. 110, 111, 130-31, 218, 219
Clifford. James 18
collecti\·e memory 143
collodion plates 3
colonialism 8-9. 8 , 9-90. 162
colour 167, 16
commonality 126-27
communication 83. 106. 181-82, 226
conceptual art 122
concerned photographers 111
concise history 135-36, 137
connoisseurship 209, 258
connotation 54, 60, 146, 257
constructed reality 41-42
Contacts 68, 69-70
contemporary images 41, 116, 136, 181, 190
context HS, 196-97, 218-19
contingent objects 253
continuum 5, 53, 251
Corpus Delecti 18
cosmological dimensions 247
counter-hegemonic imagery 131
Crash 32
Creative Camera 250
creativity 73, 107, 112, 176
Creolization 159-60, 160-61
Critical I11q11iry 13
criticality 195
cropping 68-69
cross-cultural modernity 163

culture – civilization 192
class links 52, 53-5-1
democracy 126
dialectical theo1y of 195-96
documenta1y 175-79
history 204
of the image 30
inheritance 252
politics 195
popular image 65
portraits 110-11
powerful tools 218
representation 129-30
social links 64, 142
time 78

culture of light 169

Daguerreotypes 23, 27, 257
darkness 243
darkroo1n metaphors 186-87
Davison, George 95
de-fetishization of the author 77
death 12, 13, 36-37, 38, 80, 146, 147
Debord, Guy 216
decisive mon1ent 66-67, 69, 70
deconstruction 22-23, 76, 150
Delaroche, Paul 27
delay mechanisms 80-81
democracy 126
democratic documenta1y 222
denotation 54, 257
Derrida,J acques 22, 76-82, 238
desert landscapes 206-7
design and technical finish 120
dialectics 19, 107-8, 195-96
dictionaries 16-17
Diderot, Denis 115
Didi-Huberman, Georges 18-19, 20
Die Photographie 145, 147
differentiation 120, 121
digital formats 14, 24, 33-34, 55, 79, 108, 247-48, 
digital media 29, 55, 64
discursive spaces 22, 24-25
divine light 127-28

documentary –
aesthetics 209, 225
contradictions 219-20
cultural heritage 175-79
ethical implications 3-6
literary 98-99
new generation 231
objectivity 57, 196-97, 197-98
persuasive media 182
photo-historical 201
power 238
representation 197-98, 218
translucently 49 Documents 15, 16, 18, 19


Donzelot,Jacques 31
double violation 8
Driffield, Vero 95-96
Duchamp, Marcel 140, 151-52
duration 78, 79, 80

earthworks 152, 153
Eastlake, Lady Elizabeth 82-87
economics 200
editing 17, 19
Edwards, Elizabeth 87-93, 156
Eggleston, William 232, 253
Egyptian mummification 36
Eisenstein, Sergei 17
Eisinger, Joel 214
electromagnetized photos 107
Elkins, James 13-14, 55
Emerson, Peter Henry 93-98
emotions 5, 154-57, 207
empathy 173, 258
empiricism 136, 142
E11glisl1 Ety1110logies 252 
engravings 243
equality 132
erotic photographs 8-10, 131, 156, 161, 207
eternalization 146, 147
ethics 3-6, 140, 211
ethnographic approaches 18, 90
European art histo1y 159, 160
Evans, Walker 3-4, 74-75, 98-104, 120, 192, 230-31, 232
everyday life 116, 136, 137, 178, 230
exoticism 126-27, 161, 197
expe1ience 48, 49-50, 58-59, 64, 83,
88, 145, 156, 214, 216
experimental cinema 166
exploration photography 229-30, 231-32
expressive photographs 48
extension of the eye 4 7, 68

facingness 116-17
facture of light 166
family 52, 53, 58, 131, 200
Fani-Kayode, Rotimi 160, 161
fantasy 63, 64, 168, 185, 202
Faraday, Michael 241
feminine gaze 8
femininity 210
feminism 151,211,221
Fenton, Roger 138, 252
fetishism 59, 77, 160, 161, 210, 258
fiction 112, 185, 186
figurative approaches 19, 115, 168
film 4-5, 16, 166, 169, 215 see also cinema
Finlay, Ian Hamilton 250 Flusser, Vilem 104-9 focal capacities 93-94formalism 141, 142, 209, 210, 232fomtless 16-17, 19-20, 150 fossil-like qualities 174 Foucault, Michel 22, 80, 89, 235, 236, 237
fragmentation 74
framing 68, 69
Frank, Robert 231
French contemporary landscape 72-73
Freud, Sigmund 151, 192-93
Freund, Gisele 109-14
Fried, Michael 13, 74, 114-18, 149
F1iedlander, Lee 63, 196, 207
frontality 247, 
functional photography 54, 229-31

Two

Gassmann, Pierre 69
gaze 4-5, 8, 43, 220, 258-59
Geiser, Theophile 9
gender 151, 219
generic experiences 145
geographical and geological photography 229
Gesamtwerk 169
gesture lost 188

ghosts 79
glass negatives 187
Glissant, Edouard 162
globalization 159, 210
Golub, Leon 227
Gonzalez-To1Tes, Felix 131
Goodall, Thomas 94
Graham, Dan 75
Greenberg, Clement 114, 119-24, 149,260
Grenier, Roger 58

Halasz, Gyula see Brassai:
hallucinatory visions 172, 173, 174
Hammond, Anne 253
haptic 23, 155, 259
harems 8-9
having been there 77-78, 78-79, 80
Heartfield, John 219
hegemonic discourses 129, 259
Heidegger, Martin 116
Helmholtz, Hern1ann von 93-94
heroism 120-21, 143
Henigel, Eugen 70
Herschel,F . W, 241
high-speed photography 205

historical approaches –
African diaspora artists 159, 162-63
alternative approaches 87· 91
anthropogeny 247 -48
aura 43
catalogues 181-83
colour perceptions 168
concept, 21-22, 24, I 95
evidence of facts 84 85
logic 120 
meaning 63
modernism 22-23
pe1iodization 107
persistence of the past 178-79
power 236-37
programmed apparatus 106-7
technical images 105
thematic approaches 201-2
varying perspectives 134-38

History of Photography 253, 254
Holmes, Oliver WendelJ 125-29
homelessness 197
homesteads 179
homophobia 132
homosexuality 13, 159, 160, 161
hooks, bell 129-34
Hope in the Dark 204, 206
Hopper, Edward 120
horse running 205
Howto Read a Photograph, 137-38
humanism 259
humanitarian politics 68
Hurter, Ferdinand 95-96
Husserl, Edmund 78
hybridity 160-61
hyper-reality 146

iconographic approaches 136
idealism 177, 250
idealization of Ame1ican life 179
identity 39, 42,210, 220-21, 229,235
Identity Stretch 152
ideology 62, 109-10, 130,209.215, 218, 219, 235, 259
illusory scenes 172-73
illustrations 67, 101, 112, 145
Image 182, 183
image-text essays 102
imagery 38, 130-31, 154-57
imagination 28, 31, 90, 91, 136
immortality 37
Impressionism 167
‘In, Around, and Afterthoughts’ 196, 197-98
In Search of Lost Time 185, 186-87
incarceration photography 236-37
indexes 119, 151-53, 246-47, 259-60
Indian photo studios 53
indices 246-47
indigenous peoples 173
individualism 3-4, 110, 196
information 106, 107, 108
i11fom1e 150, 151
infrared light 243
instantaneous photography 77-78, 80, 114, 146, 205
institutions 62, 108, 122, 159, 160, 161, 209
intentions 246-47
inter-textual references 192
internet see digital media intimacy 5, 6
involuntary memory 60, 72, 185-86

Jaar, Alfredo 211, 225
Japanese photography 171-75
Jasper, Karl 249
Jeffrey, Ian 134-39
journalism see photojournalism

Kallai, Erno 166
Kant, Im111anuel 51
Kei”ta, Seydou 162-63
Kertesz, Andre 13
Klett, Mark 205, 206
Knight, Diana 13
Kouwenhoven, John 229
Kozloff, Max 139-45
Kracauer, Siegfried 145-49
Krauss, Rosalind E. 14, 17-18, 19, 52, 149-54
Kronenberger, Louis 102-3

Lo Chambre claire 12
landscapes 94, 172-73, 176, 206-7, 247
language 159-60, 160-61, 224
Lartigue,Jacques Henri 157
Lateut Image 182-83
I’ avoir ete la 78, 80
left-wing photography 219
Leica cameras 62, 68
Let us now Praise Fanous Men 3, 5, 100
Levitt, Helen 4-5
liberal art history 142
life 24, 116, 136, 137, 141, 171-72, 178,230
light drawing 166, 167
Light and Shadow 174
light-wtiting 187
Linfield, Susie 217
Literary Britai11 137
literaty theory 57-60
‘Little History of Photography’ 42
living dead 216-17
logic 77-81, 120
Looking at Photographs 63, 141
luminous intensities 94
Lundgren, Michael 207
lyricism 3-4, 5-6, 68, 171, 177, 204

McCauley, Elizabeth A. 256-57
magazines 101, 112, 135, 145
magic 105, 106
mainstrearning 122, 159, 160
male gaze 220
Mali 162-63
Malraux, Andre 36-37
Manet, Edouard 27
Mapplethorpe, Robert 131-32, 160
marginality 23, 134-35, 160, 162
market forces 111, 209
maroonage 162
Marquis, Alice Goldfarb 122
Marxism 11, 43, 44, 196, 216, 236
masculinity 130, 132
mass art forms 214
mass media 63-64, 105, 145-46, 210
materialism 22, 88, 166
Mavor, Carol 154-58
Meatyard, Ralph Eugene 141
media 29, 63-64, 105, 145-46, 167, 169, 210
meditative gaze 4-5

medium – 
description 141, 260
material distinction 152
reproduction 31-32
specificity 44, 73, 96, 122, 123, 149, 153, 246

memento 49
memento mori 12, 257, 260
memoirs 58, 130, 171, 183, 185
memo1ial culture 23
Memories ef a Dog 171-72, 173, 174

memory – 
African diaspora artists 162
aid to 28, 47, 49-50, 83, 126, 207
collective 143
emotions 207
illuso1y scenes 172-74
image and place 64
involuntary 185-86
leitmotif 171-72
reality 28-29

Mercer, Kobena 159-65
meta-language 253
meta-photography 59
metaphors 187-88
metonymy 253
middle brow 51-52
mimetic democracy 125-26
mimicry 160, 166
Mirrors and Windows 231-32
Misrach, Richard 206, 207
mock dictionaries 16-17

modernism –
aesthetics 114-17, 190-91
art criticism 119, 123
avant-garde art 233
challenging 149-50
cross-cultural 163
formalism 210
historical models 22-23
paintings 121-22
postmodemism division 74
punctum 13
Pure photography 180
revolutionary shifts 49

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo 111,165-71
Mohr, Jean 46-47
moment of looking 49-50
monstration 252
montage 19, 41, 42, 47
Montier, Jean-Pierre 69
moral vocabulary 69
Moriyama, Daido 171 Morris, W1ight 175-80
multiculturalism 129, 211
mummification 36
Munby, Arthur 155
museums 89-90, 114
Muybridge, Eadweard 205
myth 9, 11, 62, 106, 155, 206, 211, 218, 260

Nadar, Paul 111, 186
narcissism 29, 34, 100, 261
narrative 89, 112, 120, 121, 142, 200
naturalism 93-97, 141, 261
Nazi ideology 215
Nebraska 176, 177
negative-positive process 242, 248, 252
Neo-Conceptualism 73
Neo-Pictorialism 73
New English Art Club 94
new photographic theory 135
New York 102, 197
Newhall, Beaumont 180-85
Newton, Helmut 64
Niepce, Nicephore 173
nineteenth century 100, 125, 156, 167,205,240 normality of the normal 56
North American art histoiy 159, 160
‘not human’ 59
novelistic structures 58-59, 72, 191

objectivity 34, 39, 53, 57, 195, 196-98, 220
O’Brian,John 200
obsolescence of art 214, 217
October 149, 151, 153
Of Grammatology 76, 81
old photographs 4J, 42, 43, 147, 173-74
On English Lagoons 96-97
On Photography 214, 215, 216, 217
ontology 36, 117, 121-22, 261
Oppenheim, Dennis 152
optical reproduction 31
Orientalist thinking 7, 8-9
orthogonality 248

paintings – analogies 242
division of labour 167-68
facture 166
modernism 121-22
non-objective 168
non-theatrical 115
photography contrast 120, 121
portraits 84
realism 37-38
technological capabilities 180

Paris 177
passactivity 79
pataphysics 31, 34
Payne, Lewis 13
Peirce, Charles Sanders 151, 246, 24 7
Penn, Irving 231
pensive images 191-92
perception theoiy 42
phenomenology 36, 46, 78, 88, 105, 156, 261
Philosophy of Photography 246, 247, 249
photo-theorists 7-10
Photography 180-81, 184
Photography A Middle-Brow Art 51-52, 54
Photography and Fascination 140, 141, 142-43
photogravure 94
photojournalism 67, 68, 73, 111-13, 145-46, 195, 218-19
photomontage 219
Photopath 152
phototherapy 220-21
physiognomic aspects 42
physiology of human vision 93
pictorialism 73-74, 93, 94, 96, 141, 146, 167, 191, 192, 261
picture editing 19, 20
Picture Form 73-74
Pinney, Christopher 53
Piper, Keith 161-62
place 49, 64, 173
platinum paper 94
play 4, 5, 107-8
Plissarc, Marie-Françoise 77
police photography 201-2
political philosophy 190
political-sociological approaches 145-49

politics – aesthetics 44, 190, 224-27
connoisseurship contrast 209
cultural engagement 195
of the image 64-65
powerful tools 218, 219
representation 129-31
staged photography 219-22
truth 236

Three

portraits – aesthetic and ideological
relationships 109-111
early superiority 83, 84
nineteenth-century 156
novelistic structures 58-59 personal aura 41
residues of human presence 147

to-be-looked-atness 116
vernacular photography 23

post-colonialism 7-10, 105, 160, 161-62
post-war Japanese photography 171
postcards 7-10, 101

postmodernism –
aesthetics 44, 210-11, 224
cultural logic 149-50
history 87, 238
marginalised artists 160
photographic theory 214
reproduction 127
theory 22, 214, 261

poverty 3
power 196-97, 218, 219, 235, 236-37, 238
Pozzi, Lucio 152
press photographs 16, 146
printing styles 69
production 43, 137, 165-66, 169, 195
professional photography 54, 248
programmed apparatus 106
progressive differentiation 120
proliferation of the photographic 122
propaganda 11, 219, 224
Prouse, Marcel 57-60, 72, 157, 185-89
pseudo-ethnography 7, 9
pseudo-realism 37
psycho-bio-graphical approaches 122
psychoanalytical approaches 42, 62, 63,220
psychological theory of art 36-39
psychotherapy 220, 221
public photography 47
publicity photography 202
punctum 12, 13, 14, 78-80, 81, 261

Quality: Its Image in the Arts 102-3

race 130-32, 159, 160, 161
radical snapshots 132-33
Ranciere,Jacques 189-94
Raw Histories 87, 88
Ray, Man 16, 18
Reading Boyishly 157

realism/reality aesthetics 177
African-American 130-31
cinematic 36, 37
fantasy paradox 185
high-speed photography 205
hyper-146
identity relations 229
intentions and skills 247
lyricism 4
non-photographic practices 150
objects 155
perfection 33-34
photojournalism 218-19
reflections of 48
representation 3 7, 39, 195
social integration 53
straight Surralism 57
suffering 216-17
technical and traditional images 105
testing 32-33

reciprocal laboratoiy 166
referent 80, 151, 155, 261
Regarding the Pain of Others 216, 217
regime of aesthetics 190, 191-92
Reinhardt, Mark 226
relay functions 201
religion 70, 206, 250, 251, 252
Relocating the Remains 161-62
Renger-Patzsch, Albeit 166, 216
reportage 67

representation
aestheticization of tragedy 225- 26
African diaspora artists 159, 160
charm of appearances 32-33
contradictions of 221
documentary 197-98, 218
ethics 211
form and surrealism 150
mass media 210
politics of 129-31
realities relationships 195
sovereign subject 80
survival after death 36-37

reproduction – 
art obsolescence 214
mass media 145
medium of 31 32
perception of sameness 11
postmodernism 127
pre-existing paintings 152
production 43, 165-66, 169

resemblances 19, 20, 37, 38, 58-59
resolution 108
responsive writing 136-37
retouching 69
Revisions 137
revolutionary approaches 19, 49
Reyher, Ferdinand 182-83
Riefenstahl, Leni 215
Riis, Jacob 231
Robinson, Hemy Peach 94, 95
Rosler, Martha 195-200
rural images 3, 5, 96, 176, 177
rustic naturalists 93

Salgado, Sebastiao 225
Salomon, Erich 111
Salon 26, 29, 100
San Francisco earthquake 205-6
Sander, August 49
Sapphic 156
Sartre, Jean-Paul 36, 78, 147
scopophilia 187, 261
Screen Education 236
screen tests 31-32
seeing in the dark 243
Sekula, Allan 200-4
Self-Evident 162-63
self-expression 117, 231-32
self-liquidating discourse 140
self-publication 29
semiology 11, 62, 63,151,261
sensitometry 95-96
sensuality 57, 155-56
series theory 251
sexism 132
sexuality 58, 132, 155, 156
sharecroppers 3, 5
shared expe1iences 5, 83
Sherman, Cindy 210
shifters 151
sign systems 11, 30-31, 32, 151, 247-48
signifiers 11, 14, 210, 262
silence 192, 193
simulacra 30, 32, 143, 262
site-specific paintings 152, 153
sketchbooks 68
slit-scan images 146

snapshots –
boring genetic 23-24
decisive moments 67
litera1y theo1y 59-60
photographic face 145
programmed apparatus 106
radical 132-33
readymade 152
social integration 52-53
spatial continuum 146

social level –
activism 204-5
approaches 51-55
asymmetries 141
being 89
commitment 182
constructions and meaning 209
democracy 126
experience 64
institutional practices 62
media 29
portraits 110
shaping society 143
themes 200-1
transformation 49, 50
upheaval 142

social media 29
soft-focus photography 84, 85
Solnit, Rebecca 204-8
Solomon-Godeau, Abigail 208-13, 232
Sontag, Susan 214-18
sound recordings 166
Southam, Jem 136
sovereign subject 80
space 49, 50, 74
spatial continuum 146, 147
speaking 193
spectators 63, 64, 74, 114, 116, 163, 168
Spence, Jo 218-23
spiritual realities 37
staged photography 219-20
static gaze 4-5
status 110, 119
Steichen, Edward 11, 28, 99
Steinberg, Leo 227
stereopticon 142
stereoscopes 125, 126, 127, 262
stereotypes 3, 131
Stieglitz, Alfred 95, 119
storytelling 220
straight photography 36, 96, 180, 181
straight Surrealism 56-57
Strand, Paul 251, 252-53
Strauss, David Levi 223-28
street photography 4, 5-6, 67
structuralism 1 l, 63
studium 12, 78, 262
subject matter 13, 38, 221-22, 248
subjectivity 34, 39, 50, 95, 157, 190, 220-21
suffering 216-17
Sullivan, Louis 229
Surrealism 16, 17-18, 56-57, 70, 150, 214
survey movement 90
surveys 51, 54
symbols 48, 105, 106, 178
syncretism 43
synthetic idealism 94
Szarkowsk.i,John 122, 140-41, 209, 228-34, 235-36, 242

tableaux 73, 160, 161,216,217,243, 262
Tagg, John 235-40
Talbot, William Hemy Fox 240-45, 252
Taminiaux, Pierre 29
taxonomy 89, 262
technical factors 31, 33-34, 79, 83-84, 105, 240-41
technology 21, 22, 29, 180, 248
temporal instant 77-78
temporal quality 177
tenant families 3, 100
textbooks 182-83
‘The Author as Producer’ 62-63
The Bowery in Two Inadequate Descriptive Systems 196, 197
The Colonial Harem: Images of a Suberoticism 7-
The Decisive Moment 66-67
The Family ef Man 11, 28, 51, 53
The History of Photography 180, 181, 182, 183
The Nation 119-20
The Pencil ef Nature 240, 242, 243
The Photographer’s Eye 122, 140-41, 142, 229, 230, 242
The Photographic Art 251-52
theatre 31, 112, 115, 115-17
Thinking Photography 62-63, 65, 236
thumbprints 152, 153
time 36-37, 38, 49-50, 60, 77-78, 84, 173, 205
to-be-looked-atness 116
de la Tourette, Gilles 188
tradition 105, 246, 251-52
tragedy 225-26
translucently documentaiy 49
transparency 114,119,120,140
trompe l’oeil 32-33, 262
true realism 37, 39
truth 195, 196, 198, 236

uncritical public 28
urban images 4, 5
utopia 107-8

Van Lier, Henri 246-49
vanguard art 140
vernacular approaches 23, 137, 167, 202, 229-31, 233,262
victim. photography 215
Victorian photographs 155
Vietnam War 231

visual factors – 
abstemiousness 211
field of view 93-94
frontal views 247
ideological forms 130
literacy 218
pleasure 63
practice and written theory 64
representation 167, 168
stereoscopes 126

voyeurism 3, 262

Wall, Jeff 116, 216-17
Wallace, Michelle 132
war 67, 216-17, 219,231
Warhol, Andy 55, 74
Ways of Seeing 46, 47
Weaver, Mike 106, 243, 250-55
Weems, Carrie Mae 131
Weimar Republic l 11
Weisz, Laszlo, see Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo
Welty, Eudora 232
Weston, Edward 120-21
White, Margaret Bourke 3
Why Photography Matters as Art as Never Before 74, 114, 115-16
Winnicott, D. W. 157
Winogrand, Garry 231, 232, 253
Winter Garden images 13
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 116, 140
Wolfe, Byron 206
Woodman, Francesca 209-10
World War II 219

X-rays 186

Zille, Heinrich 111
zoopraxiscopes 205