Wells, Liz, Photography

Photography: a critical introduction

Wells, L. (2009) Photography: a critical introduction. (4th edn.). Abingdon: Routledge.


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Contents

Thinking about photography: debates, historically and now

Derrick Price and Liz Wells

Introduction 11
Aesthetics and technologies 12
The impact of new technologies 12
Art or technology? 13
The photograph as document 17
Photography and the modern 19
The postmodern 21
Contemporary debates 24
What is theory? 24
Photography theory 26
Critical reflections on realism 27
Reading the image 30
Photography reconsidered 34
Theory, criticism, practice 36
Case study: Image analysis: the example of Migrant Mother 39
Histories of photography 49
Which founding father? 50
The photograph as image 51
History in focus 53
Photography and social history 56
Social history and photography 56
The photograph as testament 57
Categorical photography 59
Institutions and contexts 61
The museum 62
The archive 63

Surveyors and surveyed: photography out and about

Derrick Price

Introduction 67
Documentary and photojournalism: issues and definitions 69
Documentary photography 69
Photojournalism 70
Documentary and authenticity 71
The real and the digital 73
Surveys and social facts 75
Victorian surveys and investigations 75
Photographing workers 79
Photography within colonialism 81
Photography and war 86
Bearing witness 89
The construction of documentary 92
Picturing ourselves 93
The Farm Security Administration (FSA) 97
Discussion: Drum 100
Documentary: new cultures, new spaces 102
Theory and the critique of documentary 106
Cultural politics and everyday life 108
The real world in colour 110
Documentary and photojournalism in the global age 113

‘Sweet it is to scan … ‘: personal photographs and popular photography

Patricia Holland

Introduction 119
In and beyond the charmed circle of home 124
The public and the private in personal photography 124
Beyond the domestic 127
Fiction and fantasy 129
Portraits and albums 130
Informality and intimacy 136
The working classes picture themselves 137
Kodak and the mass market 142
The supersnap in Kodaland 148
Paths unholy and deeds without a name? 152
Twenty-first-century contemplations 152
Post-family and post-photography? 161
And in the galleries … 164
Acknowledgements 165

The subject as object: photography and the human body

Michelle Henning

Introduction 169
The photographic body in crisis 169
Embodying social difference 173
Objects of desire and disgust 177
Objectification, fetishism, voyeurism 177
The anti-pornography campaigns 181
Photography and homoerotic desire 183
Class and representations of the body 186
Case study: La Cicciolina 189
Technological bodies 192
The camera as mechanical eye 192
Interventions and scientific images 195
The body as machine 196
Digital imaging and the malleable body 198
Photography, birth and death 201
Summary 204

Spectacles and illusions: photography and commodity culture

Anandi Ramamurthy

Introduction: the society of the spectacle 207
Photographic portraiture and commodity culture 208
Photojournalism, glamour and the paparazzi 210
Commercial photography, image banks and corporate media 213
Commodity spectacles in advertising photography 216
The grammar of the ad 221
Case study: The commodification of human relations and experience – Telenor Mobile TV Advertisement, ‘Everywhere’ 221
The transfer of meaning 225
The creation of meaning through context and photographic styles 226
Hegemony in photographic representation 228
Photomontage: concealing social relations 228
Concealing labour relations 230
Gender, fashion and the gaze 232
Fashion photography 236
Case study: Tourism, fashion and ‘the Other’ 240
The context of the image 250
Image worlds 251
Case study: Benetton, Toscani and the limits of advertising 253

On and beyond the white walls: photography as art

Liz Wells

Introduction 259
The status of the photograph as art 260
Early debates and practices 263
The complex relations between photography and art 263
Realism and systems of representation 264
Photography extending art 265
Photography claiming a place in the gallery 268
The modern era 271
Modernism and Modern Art 271
Modern photography 274
Photo-eye: new ways of seeing 276
Case study: Art, design, politics: Soviet Constructivism 277
American formalism 279
Case study: Art movements and intellectual currencies:
Surrealism 281
Late twentieth-century perspectives 285
Conceptual art and the photographic 285
Photography and the postmodern 288
Women’s photography 292
Questions of identity 294
Identity and the multi-cultural 295
Photography within the institution 297
Appraising the contemporary 298
Curators, collectors and festivals 301
The gallery as context 302
Case study: Landscape as genre 303

Photography in the age of electronic imaging 311

Martin Lister

Introduction 313
The early 1990s and worries about truth 316
The humanist response 320
The humanist subject 321
Techno-progressivism 323
Media archaeology and other histories of photography 324
Further critical issues 328
Reception 328
Theory and practice 330
Virtual, hybrid, networked 330
The virtual image 330
Kodak and Nokia 336
Citizen (photo)journalist 337
Surveillance 338
Archives and digital image banks 339


Index A-C

1 Lafayette, Louisiana (Friedlander) 105

7/7 London bombings 338, 338

A

Abbott, Berenice 35

about-face 233

Abu Ghraib 91, 189

Adams, Ansel 279, 280, 306

Adamson, Robert 127(m), 266(m)

Addison, Graeme 102

Ades, Dawn 282

Adobe Photoshop 198, 341

advertising: Benetton 253-6; Carte D’Or 230, 231; commodity spectacle 216-20; computergenerated images 331-2, 333,

334, 335; context of the image 214, 226-8, 250; cosmetics 180; food 229, 230, 232; Halfords 228; hegemony in photographic representation 228-33; human body 180, 182, 198; Jack Daniel’s 232; Kodak 146, 150, 151; Lancia 230-2, 250-1; Landrover 331-5, 332, 333, 334; the photographic body in crisis 172; Pretty Polly 233, 234; reception of images 330; Saab 198, 200; shock advertising 254-5; Telenor 221-5, 222; Toblerone 198; transfer of meaning 225-6

aesthetics 12-24; aesthetic theory 25, 26; art history 44-5; art or technology? 13-17; definition 345; impact of new technologies 12-13; the photograph as document 17-19; photography and the modern 19-21; the postmodern 21-4; surveys and social facts 91

Afghanistan 90

African American photographers 296

African Drum 100

African National Congress 100

‘Afternoon Dream’ from ‘ Indian Summer’ (Marie Claire magazine) 248

ageing 169

Aggett, Colin 165

AIDS 169-70, 186, 255

albums 124, 130-5, 161, 239

Alexander, Stuart 303(m)

Algerian postcards 241

Allen, M. 331

Allen, N.W. 321

Alloula, Malek 240, 241, 241 (m)

Amateur Photographer 128

amateur photography 119, 134, 143

Ambrotype 86(m)

American Civil War 87

An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion 44

American formalism 279-81

Americanness 46

The Americans (Frank) 103, 272

America’s Next Top Model 202

analogue photography 18, 314, 315, 316, 345

Anglo-American Corporation of South Africa 226, 227, 227

animation 198, 199, 200, 201

Annan, Thomas 7l 79,137

anorexia 172, 234, 235

Anson, Libby 292

anthropological photography 240, 340

anti-pornography campaigns 181-3, 186

Appert, E. 71

Arab culture 245, 249

‘Arabesque: Rock the Casbah’ (Company magazine) 244

‘ Arabia behind the veil’ (Marie Claire magazine) 246-7

Archer, Frederick Scott 86(m)

‘The Archive and the Body’ (Sekula) 60

archives 64, 339-44, 353-8

Aristotle 50

Armory show 269

Amason, H.H. 274

Arnatt, Keith 287, 307

Arnold, Eve 88(m)

art 259-310; art history 25, 26, 44-5, 51; definition 345; early debates and practices 263-71; landscape as genre case study 303-1 0; late twentieth-century perspectives 285-96; the modern era 271-85; or technology 13-17; overview 259-60; photography within the institution 297-303; status of the photograph as art 260-3; surveys and social facts 91

Art and Photography (Campany) 289

Art and Photography (Scharf) 263, 263(m)

Artforum 286

Art in America 286

The Art of Photography (exhibition) 260

The Art of Photography (Weaver) 55, 260(m)

Association of Black Photographers 295

Atget, Eugene 35, 276

Atkins, Anna 271 (m), 308

auction houses 302

authenticity 71-3

‘The Author as Producer’ (Benjamin) 35

autobiography 157

Autograph 295, 296

autographic 30, 345

avant-garde 186, 197, 198, 272, 273, 275-6

‘Awakened in Buffalo’ (Marc) 296

B

Bacher, Fred 256

Back, L. 253, 253(m), 254, 255

Badger, Gerry 54, 54(m), 300(m)

Badmington, Neil 171

Bailey, David A. 240, 294, 295, 296

Bailey, Jim 100, 102

Bailey’s photographers,

Bournemouth 139

Baker, Monika 295

Bakhtin, Mikhail Mikhailovich 187, 190, 203

Baldwin, Gordon 13(m)

Baltz, Lewis 288

Barnard, George 87

Barnardo, Dr T.J. 71-2, 80

Barre, Andre 236

Barrett, Michele 121 (m)

Barry, Sir Charles 130

Barthes, Roland: Camera Lucida 27, 32, 47, 122(m), 201(m), 328; categorical photography 60; commodity spectacles 220; conceptual art 286; contemporary debates 27, 31-4, 37; context of the image 250; documentary and photojournalism 74; electronic imaging 317,324,326,328; hegemony in photographic representation 228, 230; histories of photography 12; human body 180(m), 201, 202; image banks and corporate media 214; Lange’s Migrant Mother 41, 42(m), 47; Mythologies 31, 42(m), 220(m); personal photography 122; The Pleasure of the Text 32; postmodernism 23; Telenor case study 221, 223, 225(m)

Batchen, Geoffrey: electronic imaging 321, 323, 325, 331; histories of photography 51; image banks and corporate media 214; new technologies 13; theory 26

Bate, David 113,240,284,312

Battye, Nicholas 110

Baudelaire, Charles 14, 15, 17(m), 265, 269(m)

Baudrillard, Jean 22, 74, 208

Bauhaus 276 277,284

Bayer, Herbert xx, 276, 284

Bazin, Andre 18, 27

Beard, Richard 130

The Beautiful Girl (Das scheme Madchen, Hoch) 197

Becher, Bernd and Hilla 288

Bede, Cuthbert 124, 132, 134, 135, 136, 143

Before Photography (Galassi) 266, 266(m)

Bellmer, Hans 197, 199, 285

Beloff, Halla 47-8, 103, 105

Belussi, Fiorenza 253

Benetton 177(m), 253-6

Benjamin, Walter: aesthetics and technologies 17(m), 17-18, 18(m 19-20; electronic imaging 324, 337; human body 173, 192; photography as art 263, 277, 277(m), 302; photography reconsidered 35

Berger, John: electronic imaging 324; fashion photography 236; hegemony in photographic representation 229, 232, 232(m human body 178, 180(m), 192; photography as art 304; reading the image 30-1

Bernstein, Basil 122, 122(m)

Berry, Ian 100

Bertillon, Alphonse 174, 175, 196, 340, 341

Bettman Archive 343

Between Dog and Wolf (Lebas) 310

Beyond the Family Album (Spence) 158

Bezencenet, Steve 54

Bhabha, H. 154

Billingham, Richard 164

Binkley,T imothy 314(m)

biometric data systems 175, 196

Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery 271

birth 201-4

black and white photography 111-12, 226,227,228

Black Country chain-makers postcard 142

Black Panther magazine 48

black people in photographic practice 56, 153, 240, 295, 296, 303

Black Photographers (Thomas) 56

Blackpool postcards 139

‘ Blue Hour’, from Between Dog and Wolf (Lebas) 310

Blumenfield, Erwin 236

Boddy, W. 325

Bode, S. 313

body 169-204; classical 190-1, 203; colonialism 84; documentary 107; embodying social difference 173-7; gender, fashion and the gaze 233; identity 1 58; Lange’s Migrant Mother 47; objects of desire 177-91; the photographic body in crisis 169-7 3; photography, birth and death 201-4; technological bodies 192-201

‘The Body and the Archive’ (Sekula) 173(m)

Boffin, Tessa 109

Bohemia Venezolana 48

Boltanski, Christian 164

Bolter, Jay David 329

Bond, Edward and May 140, 140, 141

Bourdieu, Pierre 165(m)

Bourdin, Guy 236

Box Brownie 119, 145-6, 146, 270, 336

Brady, Matthew 87

branding 214, 215

Brandt, Bill 106, 198, 272, 273, 275, 307, 307(m)

Braun, Marta 192, 192(m), 195

Brecht, Bertolt 17(m), 35, 43(m)

Breton, Andre 282, 282(m), 283

Bright, Deborah 183, 183(m), 184, 304

Bright, Susan 300(m)

British Airways 215

British Census 59

British Journal of Photography 1 5

Brittain, D. 164

Branski, Michael 186

Brookes, Rosetta 236, 236(m), 238, 249

Brown, Beverley 178, 182

Bulger, James 160

The Burden of Representation (Tagg) 59, 107, 107(m), 123(m), 174(m)

Burgess, N. 113

Burgin, Victor: categorical photography 59; objectification, fetishism, voyeurism 179, 180; the photograph as document 18; photography as art 27 4, 289, 290(m); photography reconsidered 35, 35(m), 36; photography theory 27, 27(m); photomontage 230; reading the image 31; theory, criticism, practice 37

Burson, Nancy 177, 204

Butler, Susan 110-11, 294, 294(m)

Butt, Gavin 184, 186

C

Cadbury’s 212, 213

Cahun, Claude 285

Callahan, Harry 280

calotype 127, 127(m), 136, 260, 266, 266(m)

Camera Club 262

Camera Lucida (Barthes) 27, 32, 47, 122(m), 201 (m), 328

camera obscura 50

camera-phones 335, 336-7, 338

cameras: art or technology? 17; box 119, 145-6, 146,270,336; camera obscura 50; detective 136; digital 157, 315; histories of photography 50; Instamatics 150, 151, 21 O; as mechanical eye 192-5; Polaroid 138, 138(m); realism 28; sales 147; viewfinders 279(m)

Camera Work 21, 269

Camerawork magazine 62, 94

Camerawork organization, London 154, 302

Cameron, James 200

Cameron, Julia Margaret 134, 262, 266-7

camp 184, 186,191,203

Campaign Against Pornography 182

Campany, David 75, 289, 289(m)

Canadian National Railways 251

Canon Photography Gallery 297(m)

Capa, Robert 88, 88(m)

capitalism 80, 207, 209, 230, 231, 232

captions 291, 292

car advertisements: Lancia 230-2, 250-1; Landrover 331-5, 332, 333, 334; Saab 198, 200

Carlebach, Michael L 87

carnivalesque 152, 187, 188, 345-6

Caro, Isabelle 234, 235, 236

Carr, E.H. 11

cartes-de-visite 132, 132(m), 147, 209, 209(m), 236

Carte D’Or advertisement 230, 231

Carter, Jennifer Ransom 151, 151 (m)

Cartier-Bresson, Henri 73, 88(m), 112

cartoons 198 199,200

Cartwright, Lisa 194, 194(m), 195

case studies: Benetton, Toscani and the limits of advertising 253-6; La Cicciolina 189-91 , landscape as genre 303-10; Lange’s Migrant Mother 39-49; Soviet Constructivism 277-9; Surrealism 281-5; Telenor 221-5; tourism, fashion and ‘the Other’ 240-9

Castells, M. 342

castration anxiety 179

CAT (computed axial tomography) 195

categorical photography 59-61

CCTV images 339

celebrities 147, 164, 181, 211-13, 224

censorship 172, 184, 186, 189

CGI see computer-generated images

Chadwick, Whitney 285

Chambers, Eddie 295, 295(m)

Chanan, M. 130

Chester, Gail 183

children 148-9, 158-60, 161, 165

Chinese baby (Wong) 211

Christian Dior 2 56

Christian iconography 203

Christian, J. 58

Christie’s 302

La Cicciolina 189-91, 190, 203

cinema: birth of 270; cinematography 20; computer generated images 331; fashion photography 233, 236; film studies 26; human body 180, 192; realism 28, 218

citizen (photo) journalist 337-8

Clarke, Graham 40, 40(m), 55, 55(m)

class 109, 1 58, 177, 186-9

classical body 190-1, 203

Claudet, Antoine 130

Close No. 118 High Street (Annan) 76

Cochrane, Kira 189(m)

Cockpit, London 298

codes 31, 32, 3􀂘 153,346

Coe, Brian 122, 122(m), 137, 144, 147, 148

Coke, Van Deren 264, 264(m)

‘Cold Comfort’ (Company magazine) 245

Cole, Ernest 100

Coleman, AD. 286

collective memory 29

collectors 301-2

collodion 86, 86(m)

The Colonial Harem (Alloula) 241

colonialism: categorical photography 59-60; French colonial postcard 248; human body 177, 179; identity and the multi-cultural 296; personal photography 124, 127; photography within colonialism 81-6; tourism, fashion and ‘the Other’ 240, 241

colour photography 110-13, 150, 151, 298

Comme des Garcons 239

Comment and Commitment (Tate Gallery) 285

commercial photography 213-16, 217,220,228, 253-6

commodity culture 207-56; Benetton case study 253-6; commercial photography, image banks and corporate media 213-16; commodity spectacles in advertising photography 216-20; context of the image 250-3; creation of meaning through context and photographic styles 226-8; definition 346; fashion photography 236-40; hegemony in photographic representation 228-36; overview 207-8; photographic portraiture and commodity culture 208-10; photojournalism, glamour and the paparazzi 210-13; Telenor case study 221-5; tourism, fashion and ‘the Other’ case study 240-9; transfer of meaning 225-6

commodity fetishism 180(m), 186, 220

communication theory 37

community arts 260(m)

community histories 154

Company magazine 244

composite photography 176, 177

Compulsive Beauty (Foster) 197

computed axial tomography (CAT) 195

computer-generated images (CGI) 331, 332, 333, 335

Comte, Auguste 324

conceptual art 285-8

A Concise History of Photography (Gernsheim and Gernsheim) 43, 52

Connarty, Jane 63

connotation 214, 221

construction 106, 290, 346

Constructivism 35, 259(m), 272, 277-9, 284, 291, 305

consumer culture 114, 214

contemporary debates 24-37;

critical reflections on realism 27-30; photography reconsidered 34-6; photography theory 26-7; reading the image 30-4; theory,

criticism, practice 36-7; what is theory7 24-6

context: context of the image 250-3; creation of meaning 226-8; galleries 302-3; institutions 61-2

controversy 255-6

Cooper, Emmanuel 184, 186

Cooper, Thomas 53, 53(m)

copies and originals 22-3, 114

Coplan, John 294(m)

Corbin, Anita 111

Corbis 214, 215, 339, 342, 343, 343

Corner, John 64

corporate media 213-16

corpses 201, 202

cosmetic advertisements 180

Cotton, Charlotte 237, 238, 298, 298(m), 299, 302

Courbet, Gustav 264, 265

Cousins, Mark 161 (m)

Covington, Marian and Jeanette 165

Craik, Jennifer 236, 237, 237(m), 239

Crary, Jonathan 24, 192, 192(m), 316,319,320, 324

Crawley, G. 150

Creative Camera 11 O

Crimean War 86, 87

Les Crimes de la Commune (Appert) 71

criminals 173-7, 196, 202

Crimp, Douglas 62(m), 62-3, 288-9

criticism 36-7

‘Critique of the Image’ (Eco) 35

cross-dressing 186

Cruel and Tender exhibition 260, 300, 300(m)

Csikszentmihalyi, M. 152

Cubists 272, 275

cultural politics 108-1 O

Cultural Sniping (Spence) 123(m)

Cunningham, Imagen 279, 306

curators 301-2

‘The Currency of the Photograph’ (Tagg) 59

Curtis, Neal 196

Cyanotype process 308, 308(m)

cyberculture 295

cyborgs 201


D-H

D

Dada 97, 196(m), 282, 321

Daguerre, Louis-Jacques-Mande 13, 49, 50, 130, 209(m), 265(m)

daguerreotype: histories of photography 50, 50(m), 55; photographic portraiture and commodity culture 209, 209(m); photography, birth and death 202; portraits and albums 130, 130(m), 131, 134; realism 265, 265(m)

Daily Illustrated Mirror 147

Daily Mirror: anti-pornography campaigns 181; documentary 95; electronic imaging 326; personal photography 14 7, 152(m); photojournalism, glamour and the paparazzi 211, 213

Daily Star 211

Dali, Salvador 282

Darwin, Charles 267

Davidoff, Leonore 121 (m), 132, 151

Davidov, Judith Fryer 39(m)

Davies, John 306, 307

A Day Off· An English Journal (Ray-Jones) 106

death 136,159, 201-4

Death of a Loyalist Soldier (Capa) 88

De Beers 226

Debord, Guy 207, 207(m), 208, 213

The Decisive Moment (Cartier-Bresson) 112

Decoding Advertisements (Williamson) 220(m), 250

deconstruction 291, 346

defamiliarisation 35-6

Deitch, Jeffrey 171

deja-tu 286

Delahaye, Luc 90

Del LaGrace Volcano 186, 191

Dennett, Terry 121, 338

denotation 214, 221

Dentith, Simon 187

Derges, Susan 308, 309

Desert Cantos (Misrach) 308

desire: class and representations of the body 189; commodity culture 218, 229, 239; homoerotic desire 183-6; objectification, fetishism, voyeurism 179; objects of 177-91; the photographic body in crisis 169

detective cameras 136

Devlin, Polly 237

Dewdney, Andrew 161

Dexter, Emma 300(m)

Diana, Princess of Wales 211, 212

di Bello, Patrizia 26, 132

Dickey, Julienne 183

Diesel 256

Dietrich, Marlene 181

digital cameras 157, 315

digital imaging 313-44; archives and digital image banks 339-44; citizen (photo)journalist 337-8; documentary and photojournalism 113; early 1990s and worries about truth 316-20; further critical issues 328-30; humanist response 320-7; Kodak and Nokia 336-7, 336-7; malleable body 198-201; overview 313-16; personal photography 120, 157, 164; postmodernism 24; the real and the digital 73-5; surveillance 338-9; the virtual image 330-6

Dijkstra, Rineka 168, 203-4, 295

Diorama 325

Directory of British Photographic Collections (Royal Photographic Society) 57

disability 162-3, 164, 179

discourse 120, 346

Disderi, Andre-Adolphe 132, 132(m), 209(m), 217

Disney animations 199

Disrupted Borders 295

Divola, John 110

D-Max 295, 296

Documenta 301

documentary: construction of 92-102; fashion photography 236; Lange’s Migrant Mother 42(m), 43, 45; new cultures, new spaces 102-15; the photograph as document 17-19; photography as art 275, 299; and photojournalism 69-75; realism 29; surveys and social facts 67, 68, 77, 78

Documentary Photography Archive, Manchester 152(m)

domesticity 121 (m), 124, 127, 134, 144

Dorothee Bis 239

Doy, Gen 241

Drake, M. 122

‘Draughtsman drawing a nude’ (Dorer) 322

Drum 100-2, 101

Dubin, Steven C 170, 172(m)

Duchamp, Marcel 282

Duncan, David Douglas 88

Duncan, M.C 119(m), 120, 121

Dunes, Oceano (Weston) 280

Dunkin Doughnuts 245, 249

Durand, Regis 115

Durden, Mark 39

Durer, Albrecht 322

Dust Storm, Cimarron County,

Oklahoma (Rothstein) 99

Dworkin, Andrea 182

Dyer, Geoff 18-19

Dyer, Richard 176

E

Eastlake, Lady Elizabeth 15(m),

15-17

Eastlake, Sir Charles 15(m)

Eastman, George 119, 142, 143, 336

Eastman Kodak 143,214, 315(m)

eating disorders 234, 236

ecological awareness 228

economic history 120, 351

Eco, Umberto 18, 31, 35, 122(m), 208

Edison, Thomas 192(m), 326

Education Acts 137

Edwards, Elizabeth 60, 60(m), 240

Edwards, Steve 11, 237-8, 289

Eggleston, William 110, 298

Eidophusikon 325

Eileraas, Karina 240

Eisenstein, Sergei 199

electronic imaging 313-44; archives and digital image banks 339-44; citizen (photo)journalist 337-8; early 1990s and worries about truth 316-20; further critical issues 328-30; humanist response 320-7; Kodak and Nokia 336-7; overview 313-16; surveillance 338-9; the virtual image 330-6

Elias, Norbert 187

Elkins, James 29

Elle magazine 233, 234, 255

Emerson, Peter Henry 270-1, 271(m)

empiricism 58

‘Encoding/Decoding’ (Hall) 220(m), 225

Enlightenment 21

Enos, Katherine 183

epistemology 346

erotic imagery: anti-pornography campaigns 182; camera as mechanical eye 192(m); La Cicciolina case study 189; fashion photography 236; homoerotic desire 183, 186; objectification, fetishism, voyeurism 177, 178, 179; tourism, fashion and ‘the Other’ 240, 244

eugenics 177

Evans, C 236, 236(m), 237

Evans, Frederick 271

Evans, Jessica 62, 62(m)

Evans, Walker 42, 45, 97, 98, 260(m)

Eve, Karen and Nick (Saunders) 162-3

‘Everywhere’ (Telenor ad) 222

Ewing, William 171,195,236

Exhibition Installation (Thompson) 270

exhibitions 299, 299(m), 300, 301-2

Exit Photography Group 11 O

exoticism 128, 240-5

The Expanding Eye (Thomas) 58(m), 58-9, 76(m)

explicitness 188, 189

Exposition Universe/le, Paris 217

F

f/64 group 279, 280(m), 288

Fables (Knorr) 291

fabrication 290, 290(m)

Facebook 120

The Face magazine 237, 253

The Face of Fashion (Craik) 237, 239

Falconer, J. 128

Falk, Pasi 256, 256(m)

‘Family of Man’ exhibition 41

family photographs: children 148-9, 158-60, 161, 165; commodity

G

Gabriel, Dorika 171 Gabriel, Teshome 152-3 Galassi, Peter 262, 266, 266(m) galleries: claiming a place in 268-71; documentary and photojournalism 113; personal photography 164-5; photography as art 297, 301-3 Gall, Franz Josef 173(m) Galton, Francis 176, 176, 177, 204 games arcades 327 Gamman, Lorraine 179

Garbo, Greta 180(m) Gardner, Alexander 87 Gasser, Martin 49 Gates, Bill 214 Gates, Kelly 338, 339 Gates, Paul 122, 122(m), 137, 144, 147 Gay, Eric 66 gay men 184, 186 gaze: definition 347; electronic imaging 322; gender, fashion and the gaze 232-6; Lange’s Migrant

Mother 47, 47(m); objectification,

fetishism, voyeurism 178; personal

photography 127, 160; surveyors

and surveyed 67; women’s

photography 293, 294

gender: class and representations of

the body 188; documentary 95-6,

109; fashion photography 232-6;

history in focus 55-6; homoerotic

desire 186; Lange’s Migrant

Mother 45-6, 46(m), 47(m);

personal photography 144, 158;

the photographic body in crisis

169; photography reconsidered

3 5; theory, criticism, practice 36 Gender Advertisements (Goffman) 232 General Electric photography 251-3 General Electric Review 252 General Theory of Linguistics (de Saussure) 31

genetics 171

The Genius of Photography (Badger) 54, 54(m) genre 303-1 O Geraghty, C. 124

Gernsheim, Alison 43, 51, 51 (m),

52, 53, 58, 59(m)

Gernsheim, Helmut 43, 51, 51(m),

52, 53, 59(m)

Getty Images pie 214, 215, 216,

339,342

Giebelhausen, Joachim 220

Gilbreth, Frank 195, 196

Gillis, J. 121(m)

Gilroy, Paul 127

glamour 210-13, 218

globalisation 113, 253

Global Vision 256

Goddard, Angela 228

Godwin, Fay 307, 308

Goffman, Erving 232

Goldberg, Vicki 53(m)

‘The Golden Age of Hollywood’

(Marie Claire magazine) 245, 249

golden rule 304-5

Goldin, Nan 164, 169

Goldman, Robert 220, 220(m), 224,

230, 233

Goldsworthy, Andy 288

Good Housekeeping 231

‘The Good Life’ (Meisel) 238

Gosani, Bob 100

Graham-Brown, Sarah 60

Graham, Judith 255

Graham, Paul 111

grand narratives 21, 22

Gran Fury 169

The Grapes of Wrath (Steinbeck) 98

Grave, Riccardo Dale 236

Gray, Camilla 277

The Great Exhibition 59,217,261

Greedy (Spence/Sheard) 159

Greenberg, Clement 191, 272, 273,

274

Green, Jonathan 287, 287(m)

Green-Lewis, Jennifer 15(m)

Greenwood, James 80

Grey, C. 154

Grey, Gustave le 305

Grierson, John 69, 92

Griffiths, Philip Jones 88

Gropius, Walter 276

grotesque 187, 188

Grundberg, Andy 91, 291

Grundrisse (Marx) 252

Grusin, Richard 329

Gulf War 210

Gunning, Tom 325

Gupta, Sunil 240, 295, 295(m)

Gurskay, Andreas 290

H

Hackney Flashers 108, 1 54

Halfords advertisements 228

Hall, C. 121 (m), 132

Hall, Stuart: commodity culture 220,

220(m), 225, 226, 232, 232(m);

identity 294, 294(m); personal

photography 127, 1 53; theory,

criticism, practice 37(m)

Hamilton, P. 82

Hamilton, Richard 286, 286(m)

Hanley, L. 160

Hannavy, J. 132

Hans Bellmer with first Doll 199

Hardy, Bert 88, 94

harem image 244, 245, 248

Hargreaves, R. 82

Hariman, Robert 29, 29(m), 39, 48

Harker, Margaret 262, 263, 268,

268(m), 269, 271(m)

Harpers Bazaar 239

Harris, Alex 110

Harrison, Charles 287

Harrison, Tom 93

Harvey, Sylvia 64

Harvie, C. 326

Hatoum, Mona 169

Having a Shave on the Banks of the

Ganga, Benares (Rai) 112

Hawarden, Lady Clementina 262

Haworth-Booth, Mark 54, 54(m),

266, 266(m), 296

Hayles, N. Katherine 171

Heartfield, John 97, 228, 229(m),

321

Hedges, Nick 11 O

hegemony 187, 220, 228-36, 347

Hello! 164

Helm, James 134

Henri, Florence 275

Herbello, Fran 169, 170

heritage industry 114, 128, 129,

297,298

The Heritage Industry (Hewison) 297

Heron, Liz 56(m)

heuristic 347

Hewison, Robert 64, 297

High Art Photography 263

high culture 51, 114

Higonnet, Anne 165

Hiley, M. 141

Hill & Knowlton 210

Hill, David Octavius 127 rr- 2􀂦: –

Hillier, Mary 134

Hill, Paul 53, 53(m), 300

Hine, Lewis 81, 96,251, 252

Hiroshima 161

Hirsch, Julia 154, 154(m)

Hirsch, Marianne 123, 123(m),

124(m), 152(m), 157, 158, 165

historicisation 347

history: as a construct 11, 12;

economic 120, 351; personal

photography 122; radical history

movement 153, 154; see also

social history

A History of Photography (Lemagny

and Rouille) 54, 54(m)

The History of Photography

(Gernsheim and Gernsheim) 51,

51(m), 52

The History of Photography

(Newhall) 49, 49(m), 51, 52

Hitler, Adolf 70

HIV 186

hobbyists 134

Hoch, Hannah 197

Hackney, David 286

Haggart, Richard 188, 188(m), 190

Hogg, Jabez 131

Hokusai, Katsushika 304, 305

holidays 150, 151, 152

Holland, Patricia 121, 123, 127,

147, 148, 150, 160

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 22

Holocaust 121(m), 153, 161

Home and Garden 1 50

homoerotic desire 183-6, 204

Honey, Nancy 165

Hopkinson, Tom 100, 102

Horlicks advertisement 218

Horne, Donald 64

House of Bondage (Cole) 100

Hovis adverts 232

Howard, F. 15

How We Are 300, 300(m)

Hudson, D. 81

Huhtamo, Erkki 325

Hulton Picture archive 214

human body 169-204; embodying

social difference 17 3-7; objects of

desire 177-91; photography, birth

and death 201-4; technological

bodies 192-201

human genome project 196

humanist response 320-7

Hunt, William Holman 267(m)

Hurley, Jack 39, 43

Hurn, David 88(m)

Hurricane Katrina 66, 91

Hustler 187, 188

Huxley, T.H. 60

hyperreality 22(m), 164, 208


I-P

I

Ibsen, Henry 270(m)

iconic codes/signs 31, 46

icons 47, 48, 48(m)

identity: definition 347; embodying

social difference 176; personal

photography 123, 157, 158;

photography as art 291, 294-7

ideology 37, 123, 220, 347-8

1-D magazine 237

1-D Nationale 296

lies, Chrissie 63(m)

illness 158

Illustrated London News 58(m), 70,

86

Image and Memory (Watriss and

Zamora) 296, 296(m)

image banks 213-16, 339-44

image-text 290, 290(m)

image worlds 251-3, 327

Image Worlds (Nye) 251, 251(m)

immigrants 161

Imperfect Beauty (Cotton) 238

Imperial War Museum 90

Impressionism 269, 269(m), 270

Impressions Gallery, York 297(m)

Independent 227, 227

indexicality 29, 31, 37, 291, 329,

348

indexical signs 46, 74

‘ Indian Summer’ (Marie Claire

magazine) 245, 248

individualism 34

lnstamatic camera 150, 151, 21 O

Institute of International Visual Arts

(INIVA) 296

institutions 61-2, 297-303

Internet 164, 183

intertextuality 327

Iraq 21 O

Ireland, Debbie 165

lrigaray, Luce 179

Isherwood, Sue 123, 123(m), 157,

165

J

Jack Daniel’s whiskey 232

Jacobs, Joseph 176

Jameson, Fredric 22-3

Jay, Martin 192, 201

Jeffrey, Ian 54, 54(m), 55, 276

Jernignan, Joseph 196

The Jewish Type (Gaitan) 176

Jhally, Sut 230, 240, 250

Jobling, Paul 236

Johanneson, Lena 56(m)

journalism 70, 211, 212

Julia, Den Haag, Netherlands

(Dijkstra) 168, 204

K

Kalb, P. 274, 274(m)

Kalogeraki, K. 161

Kellner, Douglas 208

Kelly, Angela 108-9

Kelly, Mary 289, 290, 299

Kember, Sarah 160, 321, 322, 323,

329,330

Kempadoo, Roshini 85, 85

Kemp, Martin 175, 177

Kendrick, Walter 177(m), 182

Kennard, Peter 290

Kenyon, Dave 131, 131 (m), 145

Kerouac, Jack 103

Kertesz, Andre 198

Kilbourne, Jean 230

Killip, Chris 110

Kinetoscope 326

Kinsey report 182

Kipnis, Laura 187, 187(m), 188,

191

Kippin, John 307

Kirby, David 255, 256

Kirstein, Lincoln 260(m)

Kismaric, Susan 238

kitsch 186, 191,203,272

Klarsfeld, Serge 161 (m)

Klein, Melanie 179

Klein, Naomi 230, 240

Klein, William 103, 105

Knape, Gunnilla 56(m)

Knorr, Karen 258, 291, 307

Kocharian, Ursula 154, 154(m), 155,

156, 161, 165

Kodak: advertisement 145; beyond

the domestic 129; electronic

imaging 315(m), 336-7; identity

160; mass market 142-8; page

from a Kodak Brownie album 146;

personal photography 119, 123;

supersnaps in Koda land 150, 151;

working classes 138

Kodak and the Lens of Nostalgia

(West) 119(m), 122

Kodak Trade Circular 14 7

Korean War 88

Kosinski, Dorothy 266(m)

Kotz, Liz 170

Koudelka, Josef 88(m)

Kozloff, Max 30

Kracauer, Siegfried 18, 18(m)

Krauss, Rosalind 23, 194, 284,

284(m)

Kruger, Barbara 289, 290, 294

Kuenzli, Rudolf E. 284(m)

Kuhn, Annette 157, 158

L

labour relations 230-2

Lacan, Jacques 179

The Lady of Shalott (Robinson) 269,

306

Lager Vestberg, Nina 343

Lalvani, Suren 175, 195, 209

Lancia advertisement 230-2, 250-1

Land (Godwin) 310

Landrover advertisement 331-5,

332, 333, 334

landscape 57-8, 303-1 O

Lane, Barry 165

Lange, Dorothea 29, 37, 39-49, 41,

97

Lange, Suzanne 288

Langford, M. 124(m), 158

Lang, Gerhard 177

The Language of Advertising

(Goddard) 228

Lanyon, Josephine 63

‘Larch’,f rom The Streens (Derges)

309

Last Resort (Parr) 111

Latin American photographers 296

Laub, Dori 121 (m)

Lavater, Johann Caspar 173(m)

Lavin, Maud 196, 196(m)

Leach, John 141

Lebas, Chrystal 310

Leeds Slumdom (Swift) 137

Lee, Russell 97, 98

leisure 137, 138

Lemagny, Jean-Claude 14(m), 54,

54(m), 132

lesbian photography 109, 184, 186

Leslie, Esther 180, 199, 200

Let Us Now Praise Famous Women

(Fisher) 45

Levitt, Helen 104

Lewinski, Jorge 88

Lewis, David 294(m), 296

Liberation 7 4

Lichtenstein, Roy 286

Life 88, 210

Lincoln, Abraham 209

Lindt, Johannes 82

Linked Ring Brotherhood 268, 269

Linkman, Audrey 122, 122(m), 141,

152(m)

lipstick advertisements 233

Lipton, Eunice 177

Lister,M . 313,3 30, 332

literary criticism 25, 26

Livingston, Jane 284, 284(m)

Lloyd, Jill 83

Locaites, John Louis 29, 29(m), 39,

48

Lockwood, Arthur 165

Lockwood, Frank 149

Lodgers in a Crowded Tenement

(Riis) 79

London Labour and the London

Poor (Mayhew) 59, 80

The London Paper 1 52

London Stereoscopic Company 86

Lonely Metropolitan (Bayer) xx

Long, Richard 288, 290

Look and Life 70

Look at Me (Williams) 237

looking 36, 106, 107

Lorentz, Pare 43, 43(m)

Lovell, Terry 302

La Lumiere 13

Lyons, Nathan 53(m)

Lyotard, Jean-Fran􀂤ois 21

M

Macdonald, G. 127, 130, 131

Machin, David 213, 214

Macintosh, Mary 183

MacKinnon, Catherine 182

Madge, Charles 93

Magli, Patrizia 173

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

195

Magnum Photos 88, 88(m), 90, 100

Magubane, Peter 100

Mahr, Mari 290

Maimaine, Arthur 100, 102

Makinen, Merja 179, 180(m)

‘Making Strange: The Shattered

Mirror’ (Watney) 35

Malevich, Kasimir 277

Mandela, Nelson 226

Manet, Edouard 264, 264(m)

Mann, Sally 165

Manovich, Lev: electronic imaging

321,330,331, 335; human body

193, 198

Man Ray 272, 284, 285, 302

Mapplethorpe, Robert 172(m), 184

Marc, Stephen 296

Marey, Etienne-Jules 192, 194, 195,

196

Marie Claire magazine 234, 235,

244,245, 246-7, 248,249

Marin, Guillermo 165

marketing photography 251-3

Martin, Paul 79, 95, 136

Martin, Rosy 157, 158

Marvin, C. 325

Marxism 21, 35, 51, 180(m)

Marx, Karl 220, 252, 277(m)

Mass Observation 93-4, 95

materialist analysis 35

Matshika,T odd 100

Mavor, C. 134

Mayhew, Henry 59, 79, 80

Mayne, Roger 105-6

McCauley, Elizabeth Anne 209,

209(m), 217

McClintock, Anne 127

McCullin, Don 89

McIntosh, Mary 121 (m)

McRobbie, Angela 239, 240

meaning: commodity culture 220,

224, 225-8; contemporary

debates 25, 29, 32; human body

204; personal photography 122,

153, 154

medicine 171, 194, 195

Meisel, Steven 237, 238

Meiselas, Susan 88(m), 89

memory 122, 152, 152(m), 157,

158, 161

Mendel, Gideon 169, 171

Men Greeting in a Pub (Spender)

95

Messager, Annette 169

Metz, Christian 180, 180(m), 201

Mewes, George 218

Meyer,M oe 191

micrography 195

Migram Morre’ _a:1ge , • 􀂥

39, 41, 48, 97

Mikhailov, Boris 295

Millais, John Everett 267 rl’)

Miller, Lee 283, 285

Miller, Mark 210

Milvertha Hendricks (Gay) 66

mimetic representation 348

Minto, C.S. 58

Mirage 295

Misrach, Richard 308

Mitchell, William J. 316, 318-20,

324, 325, 330, 330(m)

Mitter, Swasti 254

mobile phones: camera as

mechanical eye 193; electronic

imaging 335, 336-7; personal

photography 120, 152, 157;

Telenor case study 221-5

Mobile Photograph (Bate) 312

Modern Art 271-4

modernisation 123

modernism: aesthetics and

technologies 17, 19-21, 22;

definition 348; histories of

photography 51; photography as

art 260, 271–4, 276, 307; social

history 58

modernity 21, 58

modern photography 274-6

Modisane, Bloke 100

Modotti, T ina 281

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo: aesthetics and

technologies 10, 12, 20; personal

photography 123; photography as

art 276, 277, 280; photography

reconsidered 35

Moholy-Nagy, Lucia 276

Mohr, J. 324

Mais de la Photo 301

MOMA see Museum of Modern Art

Monroe, Marilyn 342

montage 67, 67(m), 136, 136(m), 276

Montage (Wombell) 242

monteurs 291

Montoussamy-Ashe, Jeanne 56

Moore, Ray 306

Morgan, Robin 182

The Morgue (Fatal Meningitis 11)

(Serrano) 203

Morgue series (Serrano) 202-3

Morrish, J. 214

mortuary photographs 202

Mother and Baby 1 50 movies see cinema Mrs Lewis Waller with a Kaffir Boy (Thomas) 83 Mulvey, Laura 180, 233 Munby, Arthur 81, 81(m) Murray, Heather 175, 176 Musee d’Orsay, Paris 264(m), 269(m) Musello, C. 149 Museum of Modern Art (MOMA): aesthetics and art history 44; documentary 11 O; fashion photography 238; histories of photography 49(m), 51, 52, 55; photography as art 260, 262, 269(m), 272(m), 292(m), 297; social history 62 museums 62-3, 301-2 mutoscopes 192, 192(m) Muybridge, Eadweard 192 Mydans, Carl 88 Myers, Kathy 228, 228(m) Mythologies (Barthes) 31, 42(m), 220(m)

N

Nadar (Gaspard Felix Tournachon) 264 Nairne, Sandy 289, 302, 302(m) National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) 184 National Gallery, London 264(m), 269(m) National Geographic image collection 214 National Museum of Media, Bradford 292(m) The National Museum of Photography, Film and Television (NMPFT) 49(m), 293, 297(m) naturalism 270, 270(m) Naturalistic Photography (Emerson) 270 Nazism 177, 196, 197 Nead, Lynda 322 Neale, Steve 325, 326 Neumaier, Diane 294, 294(m) New Bauhaus 280 Newhall, Beaumont 49, 51-2, 53, 261, 281 Newhall, Nancy 52(m)

A New History of Photography (Frizot) 54, 54(m)

The New Housekeeping (Frederick)
229, 229
News of the World 181 , 211 newspapers 146, 147
Newsweek 90
Newton, Helmut 236
new topographies 288, 288(m) New Yorker 255
New York (Levitt) 104
New York Public Library 62
New York Times 296
Next Directory 237-8
Nichols, Bill 265
Niepce, Nicephore 50
Nietzsche, Friedrich 34
‘Night Diva’, Marie Claire 234, 235 Nkosi, Lewis 100
No Caption Needed (Hariman and
Locaites) 29, 29(m)
Nochlin, Linda 264
Nokia 336, 336-7
Nolita 234, 235, 236
Northern Rock 227-8
Nova magazine 237
nudes 187, 198
nudity 83, 84, 177
Nunberg, G. 342
Nxumalo, Henry 100, 102
Nye, David 251, 252

O

obesity 172
objectification: anti-pornography campaigns 182, 183; commodity culture 254; definition 348; digital imaging and the malleable body 201; objectification, fetishism, voyeurism 178, 179, 180

O’Donnell, Ron 296
‘Off the Shelf’ campaign 182 Ohrn, Karin Becker 44, 69
Okabe, Daisuke 315
OK magazine 164, 212, 213 Olalquiaga, Celeste 191(m)
On Photography (Sontag) 27, 27(m),
28, 201(m)
Onslow, R. Foley 133
ontological debates 19, 26, 32-4,
328,348
originals and copies 22-3, 114 Orvell, Miles 39
Osborne, Brian 251
O’Sullivan, Kevin 213
O’Sullivan, Timothy 87

the Other: categorical photography

60; class and representations of

the body 189; definition 348-9;

identity and the multi-cultural 295; surveys and social facts 79, 82; tourism, fashion and ‘the Other’ case study 240-9 Our Forbidden Land (Godwin) 310

Outerbridge, Paul 11 O

P

Paasonen, Susanna 183
Panoramas 325, 326
Panzani pasta advertising 230 paparazzi photographs 181, 210-13 Papson, Stephen 230
‘The Paradoxes of Digital
Photography’ (Manovich) 330 Parr, Martin 111, 111, 114, 300(m) Pastoral Interludes (Pollard) 308 Peapall, Lily 118
Peirce, C.S 31, 46, 74
The Pencil of Nature (Fox Talbot)
127, 271(m)
Penlake, Richard 119(m), 136 Penn, Irving 236, 244, 254, 255 Penrose, Roland 282
Penthouse 187, 191
personal histories 154


personal photography 117-65;beyond the domestic 127-9; fiction and fantasy 129-30; in the galleries 164-5; informality and intimacy 136-7; Kodak and the mass market 142-8; overview 119-24; portraits and albums 130-5; post-family and post- photography 161-4; the public and the private in personal photography 124-7; the supersnap in Kodaland 148-52; twenty-first century contemplations 152-61; the working classes picture themselves 137—42

perspective 265
Perspective of Nudes (Brandt) 275 Petro, Patrice 57(m) Phantasmagoria 325 phenomenology 34, 349 Phillips, Christopher 53(m), 279,
279(m)
Phizacklea, Annie 254
photo agencies 88

Photo-Club of Paris 269

photo-eye 276-7

The Photograph: A Strange,

Confined Space (Price) 29

The Photograph (Clarke) 55, 55(m)

Photographers’ Gallery, London

297(m)

Photographic Advertising Limited

218, 219

‘The photographic craze’ 128

Photographic News 144

Photographic Pleasures (Bede) 135

Photographic Society 1 5(m), 130,

268, 270, 271(m)

photography archives 64, 339–44,

353-8

photography as art 259-310; early

debates and practices 263-71;

landscape as genre case study

303-1 O; late twentieth-century

perspectives 285-96; the modern

era 271-85; overview 259-60;

photography within the institution

297-303; status of the

photograph as art 260-3

photography debates and histories

11-64; aesthetics and

technologies 12-24; critical

reflections on realism 27-30;

Migrant Mother case study

39-49; histories of photography

49-56; overview 11-12;

photography reconsidered 34-6;

photography theory 26-7;

reading the image 30-4; social

history 56-64; theory, criticism,

practice 36-7; what is theory?

24-6

photography perspectives 285-96;

identity and the multi-cultural

295-6; photography and the

postmodern 288-92; questions of

identity 294-5; women’s

photography 292-4

Photography: A Concise History

(Jeffrey) 54, 54(m)

Photography, A Cultural History

(Warner Marien) 53(m), 53–4

Photography and Fascination

(Kozloff) 30

Photography and the Body (Pultz) 169

Photography: An Independent Art

(Haworth-Booth) 54, 54(m)

Photography, A Very Short

Introduction (Edwards) 11

The Photography Book (Phaidon) 53

‘Photography,P hantasy,F unction’

(Burgin) 36

Photography Theory (Elkins) 29

Photography Until Now (Szarkowski)

55, 55(m)

photojournalism: commodity culture

210-13, 236; contemporary

debates 29, 36; and documentary

69-75, 113-15; electronic

imaging 316,317,318; personal

photography 148; social history

58; surveys and social facts

87, 91

photomontage: body as machine

198, 198(m); commodity culture

228-32, 242; electronic imaging

321; personal photography 136,

136(m); photography as art 276,

284, 284(m); surveys and social

facts 67(m)

Photo Poche 53

photorealism 331, 333

Photo-Secession, New York 269

Photoshop 198, 341

phrenology 60, 173, 173(m), 177,

209

physiognomy: categorical

photography 60; colonialism 82;

electronic imaging 338; human

body 173, 173(m), 174, 176, 177,

195, 196; photographic

portraiture and commodity culture

209

physiognotrace 13

Physique Pictorial 185, 203

pictorialism: aesthetics and

technologies 14-15, 17;

landscape as genre 305; modern

photography 275; photography

claiming a place in the gallery

268,270,271, 271(m)

Picture Manager 341

Picture Post: construction of

documentary 94, 95, 96, 100;

personal photography 148;

photojournalism 70;

photojournalism, glamour and the

paparazzi 21 O; social history

58(m)

Pierre et Giles 191

Piper, Adrian 169

Piss Christ (Serrano) 172(m), 203

Plato 305(m)

Playboy 187, 188, 191

T he Pleasure of the Text (Barthes) 32

Podpadec, John 111

Polaroid camera 138, 138(m)

police records 173, 174, 175, 196

‘The Political Uses of Photomontage’

(Berger) 229

Pollard, Ingrid 296, 307, 308

Pollock, Griselda 233

Pollock, Jackson 274

polysemic 349

Pompidou Centre, Paris 297

Pop Art 286, 286(m)

Popova, Livbov Sergeyevna 277

popular memory 61

popular photography 117-65;

beyond the domestic 127-9;

fiction and fantasy 129-30; in the

galleries 164-5; informality and

intimacy 136-7; Kodak and the

mass market 142-8; overview

119-24; portraits and albums

130-5; post-family and postphotography

161–4; the public

and the private 124-7; social

history 56-7; the supersnap in

Kodaland 148-52; twenty-first

century contemplations 152-61;

the working classes picture

themselves 137–42

pornography: anti-pornography

campaigns 181-3; La Cicciolina

case study 189, 190, 191; class

and representations of the body

186, 187, 188; homoerotic desire

183, 184, 186; objectification,

fetishism, voyeurism 177, 180;

personal photography 130

Portrait of Space (Miller) 283

portraiture: commodity culture

208-10, 218, 236; personal

photography 130-5; photography

as art 266; social history 56;

working classes 138

positivism 25, 323, 324, 349

Posner, Jill 226

postcards: Black Country chainmakers

142; Blackpool postcards

139; colonialism 86; social history

56; tourism, fashion and ‘the

Other’ 241; working classes

138-9, 141

postmodernism: aesthetics and

technologies 21-4; commodity

culture 208; definition 349;

documentary and photojournalism

114; photography as art 260,

288-92, 307; theory, criticism,

practice 36

post-mortem photography 201, 202,

202

poststructuralism 26, 294, 349

poverty: construction of

documentary 96, 98, 99; identity

160; surveys and social facts 75,

77, 78, 79

power 106, 107, 175, 176, 204

Pozner, Jennifer L. 202

Pre-Raphaelite Art 267, 267(m), 268

Pretty Polly tights advertisement

233, 234

Price, Derrick 81

Price, Mary 27, 29

printing press 17

print quality 44, 44(m)

Prior Park, near Bath (Brandt) 273

prison records 173, 175

Prochaska, David 240, 241

Pryce, WT.R. 138

pseudo-documentary 255, 256

psychoanalysis: colonialism 82;

contemporary debates 26, 31,

34-7; definition 349; human body

178, 189; identity 158, 159, 294;

Lange’s Migrant Mother 47(m);

Surrealism 281, 284

Puglia, Stephen 343

Pultz, John 47, 47(m), 60, 169

punctum 33

Punt, Michael 13


Q-Z

Q

Quaade, V. 253, 253(m), 254, 255

Quartermaine, Peter 82

queer photography 183, 186, 191

R

Rabinowitz, Paula 48

race: categorical photography 60;

colonialism 82, 84, 85;

commodity culture 232, 253, 254;

documentary 109; embodying

social difference 176, 177,

177(m); identity and the multicultural

295; the photographic

body in crisis 169; theory,

criticism, practice 36

radical history movement 153

Radical Party 190, 191

radiography 195

Rahir, Patrick 211

Rai, Raghu 112

Ramamurthy, A. 254

Ransom, Jenny 165

Rat Poison Suicide II (Serrano) 203

Rava, Vittoria 255

Ray-Jones, Tony 106

rayographs 284, 284(m)

readers of personal pictures 122,

122(m), 153

Reading American Photographs

(Trachtenberg) 81, 81 (m)

‘Reading an Archive’ (Sekula) 63

realism: categorical photography 59;

commodity culture 218; critical

reflections on 27-30; cultural

politics and everyday life 109;

electronic imaging 321, 322, 323,

325,331; human body 182, 189;

Lange’s Migrant Mother 43(m);

the photograph as document 18,

19; photography reconsidered 35;

photography theory 27; the real

and the digital 73-5; systems of

representation 264-5; theory,

criticism, practice 37

reality: critical reflections on realism

27, 28, 30; human body 204;

Lange’s Migrant Mother 47,

48(m); the photograph as

document 18; realism and systems

of representation 264; theory and

the critique of documentary

106

Reas, Paul 294(m)

reception 328-30

Reflections of the Black Experience

(Baker) 295

refugees 161

Regarding the Pain of Others

(Sontag) 91

Rejlander, Oscar Gustav 80, 137,

268, 321

religion 182, 203

representation 17, 22, 36, 68, 108,

264,350

repression 127, 282, 350

reproduction 350

Respini, Eva 238

Returning Home (Meiselas) 89

‘The Rhetoric of the Image’ (Barthes)

230

Richards, Thomas 81, 217, 220

Riefenstahl, Leni 236

Riis, Jacob 77-8, 79, 81, 96, 137

Ritchen, Fred 316,317,318,319,

320

River Scene, France (Silvy) 266, 267,

305

Roberts, John 45-6, 46(m), 109,

286

Roberts, Pam 134(m), 165

Roberts, Russell 63(m)

Robins, Corinne 290

Robins, Kevin 323, 324, 330

Robinson, Henry Peach 268, 269,

271, 306, 307

Rochberg-Halton, E. 152

Rodchenko, Alexander 97, 123, 278,

279

Rodgers, George 88(m), 275

Rodgerson, Gillian 182, 183, 187

Rogers, Brett 299, 299(m)

Roger-Viollet, L. 193

roll film 270, 336

Rolston, Adam 170

Romanticism 305

‘The Rooftop’, Villa Savo ye (Knorr)

258

Room 1 (Seawright) 90

Rosenblum, Naomi 42, 44, 54-6,

268(m)

Rosier, Martha 39(m), 42, 69, 96,

201, 289

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel 267(m)

Rothko, Mark 274

Rothstein, Arthur 72, 97, 99

Rouille, Andre 14(m), 54, 54(m), 132

Rousse, Kate 165

Rowland, Anna 276

Royal Academy, London 260

Royal Photographic Society (RPS)

15(m), 57, 130, 271(m), 297(m)

Royal Society of Arts 261

royalty 132, 147

Rubinstein, Daniel 337

Ruby, Jay 201, 202

Rushdie, Salman 21 O

Russell, William 86

Russian Futurism 35

Ryan, James R. 84, 86

S

Saab advertisement 198, 200

sadomasochism 184

Said, Edward 241

St Mary’s School, Manchester 138

Saks, Arnold 227

Salgado, Sebastiao 113

Salvemini, Lorella Pagnucco 256

Sampson, Anthony 100

Sandon, Emma 127

San Francisco Museum of Modern

Art 272(m), 297

Sassoon, Joanne 343

Satanic Verses (Rushdie) 210

Saunders, Nick 162-3, 164, 165

Savan, Leslie 255

Schadeberg, Jurgen 100, 102

Scharf, Aaron 262-4, 266, 269

Schicci, Riccardo 189, 190, 191

Schildkrout, Enid 240

Schmidt, Joachim 165

Das schone Madchen (Hoch) 197

school photos 137, 138

science 25, 195, 229

scopophilia 179, 233, 350

Scottish Photography Archive

297(m)

Screening the Body (Cartwright)

194(m)

Seawright, Paul 90, 90

Second World War 88, 148, 316

Segal, Lynne 183

Sekula, Allan: documentary and

authenticity 73; embodying social

difference 173-5, 177; social

history 60, 61, 63, 64;

surveillance 338

Self Burial (Arnatt) 287

semiology 31, 106, 223, 350

semiotics: aesthetics and

technologies 18, 22;

contemporary debates 31, 32, 35,

36, 37; definition 350; Lange’s

Migrant Mother 39(m), 46;

personal photography 153;

photography as art 300; the real

and the digital 74

sensationalism 211

Serrano, Andres 172(m), 184, 202,

203, 203

sexism 232

sexuality: anti-pornography

campaigns 182, 183; cultural

politics and everyday life 109;

fashion photography 236, 239;

gender, fashion and the gaze

233; identity 159; objectification,

fetishism, voyeurism 177-8, 179,

180; the photographic body in

crisis 172; tourism, fashion and

‘the Other’ 244, 245

Seymour, David (Chim) 88(m)

Shahn, Ben 97

Sharpe, L. 218

Sharpeville massacre 100

Sheard, Tim 159

Sherman, Cindy 169, 237, 239,

289,290,295

Shields, Rob 330

Shifting Focus (Butler) 294,

294(m)

Shinkle, Eugenie 236

shock advertising 254-5

Shocks to the System exhibition

300(m)

Shore, Stephen 110, 298

Side Gallery, Newcastle 302

s􀂇ns 31, 4􀂉 7􀂈 10􀂉 223,224

Silvy, Camille 266, 267, 305, 307

Simmel, Georg 173

Simpson, O.J. 208

simulacra 22, 23, 114

simulations 331-2

Situationist International 207,

207(m)

Slater, Don: commodity culture 210,

21 0(m), 242, 250, 252; cultural

politics and everyday life 108;

electronic imaging 336; personal

photography 120, 120(m), 123,

143, 149

Sluis, Katrina 337

Small World (Parr) 114

Smith, Clarissa 183, 186

Smith, Karen 165

Smith, Katie 71, 72

Smith, L. 134

Smith, W. Eugene 88

Snyder, Joel 58, 321

social class 96, 186-9

social history 56-64; the archive

63-4; categorical photography

59-61; definition 351; institutions

and contexts 61-2; the museum

62-3; personal photography 120;

photograph as testament 57-9;

photography reconsidered 34, 37;

social history and photography

56-7

socialism 300

social science theory 25

Society for Photographing Relics of

Old London 128

Society of the Spectacle (Debord) 207

So Exotic, So Homemade (Walker) 94

Solanke, A. 154

solarisation 284, 284(m), 285

Solomon-Godeau, Abigail:

commodity culture 236, 238, 240;

documentary photography 69,

69(m); Lange’s Migrant Mother 43,

43(m); objectification, fetishism,

voyeurism 177(m), 178, 178(m);

photography as art 279,

279(m)

sonograms 194, 195

Sontag, Susan: commodity culture

208; critical reflections on realism

28, 29, 30; human body 179,

189, 189(m), 201, 201(m);

photography theory 27, 27(m);

reading the image 34; surveys

and social facts 91

Sotheby’s 302

‘Soul Searching’ (Marc) 296

Southam, Jem 111, 307

Soviet Constructivism 259(m),

277-9, 284, 291

Spanish Civil War 88

spectacles and illusions 207-56;

Benetton case study 253-6;

commercial photography, image

banks and corporate media

213-16; commodity spectacles in

advertising photography 216-20;

context of the image 250-3;

creation of meaning through

context and photographic styles

226-8; fashion photography

236-40; hegemony in

photographic representation

228-36; overview 207-8;

photographic portraiture and

commodity culture 208-1 0;

photojournalism, glamour and the

paparazzi 210-13; Telenor case

study 221-5; tourism, fashion and

‘ the Other’ case study 240-9;

transfer of meaning 225-6

spectatorship 35

Spence, Jo: electronic imaging 338;

Greedy 159; personal

photography 121, 123, 157, 158,

160; the photographic body in

crisis 169

Spender, Humphrey 94, 95, 95

Spiegel, Lynn 325

Spray it Loud (Posner) 226

Squiers, Carol 170, 211, 212,227,

227(m)

staged images 290, 290(m)

Stallabrass, Julian 107-8

Staller, Ilona 189-91, 190

Stallybrass, Peter 187, 188, 189

Stanley, J. 154

Stapely, G. 218

Steele-Perkins, Chris 11 O

Steichen, Edward 41

Steinbeck, John 98

Stein, Sally 78, 229, 229(m)

Stein, Sylvester 100

stereoscopes 129, 129-30, 178, 192,

193, 325

Stieglitz, Alfred 269, 281(m)

Stills Gallery, Edinburgh 297(m)

stock photography 213-16, 216,

218, 219, 245, 339

Stokes, Philip 33

Stott, William 92(m), 92-3

straight photography: art or

technology? 15(m); definition

351; documentary and

photojournalism 69, 69(m), 70;

electronic imaging 321;

photography as art 274, 292,

298

Strand, Paul 20-1, 275

Strauss, David Levi 92, 92(m)

The Streens (Derges) 309

Strindberg, August 270(m)

structuralism 31, 32, 351

Struk, Janina 161

Stryker, Roy 40, 40(m), 45, 46, 97

Stuart Hall Library 296

studium 33

sublime 305; definition 351

A Sudden Gust of Wind (after

Houkusai) (Wall) 304, 305

Sullivan, Constance 56, 293, 293(m)

Sun 211

Sunday Times Magazine 214, 215,

286

Surrealism 236, 272, 281-5, 305

394

surveillance 160, 338-9

surveyors and surveyed 67-115;

construction of documentary

92-102; documentary and

photojournalism 69-75;

documentary: new cultures, new

spaces 102-15; overview 67-8;

surveys and social facts 75-92

Sutcliffe, Frank Meadow 80, 95, 136

Sweetness and Light (Kempadoo) 85

Swift, Willie 137

Swingler, S 132

symbolic codes/signs 31, 46

S/Z 32

Szarkowski, John 49, 55, 55(m),

110,280

T

tableaux 134

tabloid newspapers 211, 213

Tagg, John: commodity culture 208,

208(m), 209, 221; documentary

107, 107(m), 108; electronic

imaging 326, 328, 338;

embodying social difference

174, 174(m), 175; personal

photography 123, 123(m),

131, 137; social history 57(m),

59, 59(m)

Tango of Slaves (Ziv) 153

Tate Britain 272(m)

Tate Gallery, St Ives, Cornwall 272,

272(m)

Tate Liverpool 272(m)

Tate Modern, London 260, 272(m),

297

Tatlin, Vladimir 196

Tawadros, Gilane 296

Taylor, Bryce 212

Taylor, Frederick Winslow 195

Taylor, Janelle S. 195

Taylor, John 64(m), 128, 148, 298,

307

technological bodies 192-201; body

as machine 196-8; camera as

mechanical eye 192-5; digital

imaging and the malleable body

198-201; interventions and

scientific images 195-6

technological determinism 351

technologies 12-24; art or

technology7 13-17; impact of

new technologies 12-13; the

photograph as document 17-19;

photography and the modern

19-21; the postmodern 21-4

techno-progressivism 323-4

Telenor advertisement 221-5, 222

teleology 351

Ten/8 62, 240, 289

Tennyson, Lord Alfred 267

Terminator 2 (Cameron) 200, 331

terrorism 91,171,316,338,338,339

texts 106

Themba, Can 100

theory: critical reflections on realism

27-30; electronic imaging 330;

photography theory 26-7; theory

and the critique of documentary

106-8; theory, criticism, practice

36-7; what is theory? 24-6

Thinking Photography (Burgin) 26,

27(m), 35

‘The Third Meaning’ (Barhtes) 33

Thomas, Alan 58(m), 58-9, 76(m),

76-7

Thomas, D. Willis 56

Thomas, William 83

Thompson, FM.L 42, 134, 147,

148, 151

Thompson, T hurston 270

Thomson, John 79, 80

Thornton, M. 236, 236(m), 237

Three Perspectives on Photography

exhibition 300, 300(m)

Through the Looking Glass

exhibition 300(m)

The Times 127

tintypes 138, 138(m)

titles 291, 292

Toblerone advertisement 198

tomography 195

Torday, Emile 240

torture 189, 189(m)

Toscani, Oliviera 234, 253-6

tourism: archives 64; colonialism 86;

documentary and photojournalism

114; personal photography 127,

129, 150; tourism, fashion and

‘the Other’ 240-9

Towards a Bigger Picture 297

Townsend, Chris 172, 202(m)

Trachtenberg, Alan 81, 81(m), 87

Trangmar, Susan 290

trauma 160, 161

Trevor, Paul 110

truth 316-20, 328

Tucker, Anne 40-1, 41 (m), 42(m), 55

Turner, Anthea 212, 213

Twin Towers 91, 339

‘The Two Ways of Life’ (Rejlander) 268

U

ultrasound 194, 195

unconscious 282, 351

United Colors of Benetton 253

United Co/ors (Salvemini) 256

Untitled (Herbello) 170

Urry, John 84, 127

users of personal pictures 122,

122(m), 153

USSR in Construction 12 278

V

van Alphen, E. 164

Vance, Carole S. 172, 172(m), 184

Vanity Kodaks 144

Van Lamsweerde, Inez 169

Van Schendel, W. 84

Venice Biennale 301

Vertov, Dziga 192

Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A),

London: fashion photography

238; photography as art 260,

292(m), 297, 297(m); social

history 62(m)

Victorian surveys and investigations

75-9

Victoria, Queen 132, 268

Vietnam War 88, 316

Viewers at a Panorama 326

Villa Savoye (Knorr) 258, 291

virtual image 330-6

Visible Human Project 195-6

visiting cards 132

‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative

Cinema’ (Mulvey) 180

vivisection 195

Vogue 244

Vogue Italia 238

voyeurism 36, 91, 179, 232, 236, 352

Vu 70

W

Walcott, Marion Post 97

Waldby, Catherine 196

Walkerdine, Valerie 157, 158, 160,

160

Walker, Ian 94, 284, 284(m)

Wallace, Marina 175, 177

Wall, Jeff 290, 303, 304, 304-5

‘The Wanderers’ 277

war 86-90, 147, 148, 210, 211, 316

Ward, Dick 220

Warhol, Andy 286

Warhurst, Caroline 122, 122(m), 142

Warner, Marina: personal

photography 132

Warner Marien, Mary: histories of

photography 50-1, 53(m), 53-4,

56; photography as art 263,

263(m), 306; social history 59,

59(m)

Watkins, Carleton 58, 306

Watney, Simon 35, 157

Watriss, Wendy 296, 296(m)

Weaver, Mike 55, 260(m), 268,

268(m)

Weber, Bruce 236

weddings 154, 157

Weernink, Wim 250

Weibel, Peter 317,319,320

Wellington pit, Whitehaven 141

Wells, Liz 165, 250, 307, 307(m)

Werge, John 131, 134

Weski, Thomas 110, 300(m)

West, Nancy Martha 119, 122, 129,

136, 143, 144

Weston, Edward 279, 280, 281,

281 (m), 306, 325

wet collodion 86, 86(m)

‘When Was Modernism’ (Williams)

272

whiskey adverts 232

White, Allon 187, 188, 189

White, Minor 280, 306

White Sea Canal (Rodchenko) 278

Wilkinson, Helen 218

Willett, John 276, 276(m)

Williams, Linda 177(m), 188,

188(m), 192, 192(m)

Williamson, Judith: advertising

photography 220, 220(m); context

of the image 250; hegemony in

photographic representation 228,

230(m), 230-1, 232; Telenor case

study 223, 224, 225

Williams, Raymond 13, 220, 259(m),

272,286

Williams, Val: documentary 95-6;

fashion photography 237;

histories of photography 55-6;

personal photography 123, 132,

136, 147, 153, 164; photography

as art 300(m); women’s

photography 293, 293(m)

Willis, A.-M. 314(m)

Wilson, Elizabeth 182, 183, 187

Wilson, George Washington 128

Wilson, Sir Arnold 124-7, 125, 126,

129, 136, 137

Winchester, Simon 114

Winship, Janice 232, 232(m), 233

Witkin, Joel-Peter 290

Wollen, Peter 262, 262(m), 275

Woman Photographers (Sullivan)

56

The Woman’.s Eye (Tucker) 55

Wombell, Paul 242,242, 313, 318

women: gender, fashion and the

gaze 232-6; personal

photography 134, 144, 150, 151,

153-4; photographers 56, 95-6,

158, 165, 292-4, 303; Surrealism

285; women’s movement 151;

workers 81, 81 (m)

Women Photographers (Sullivan)

293, 293(m)

Women Photographers: The Other

Observers (Williams) 55(m),

123(m), 293, 293(m)

Women using stereoscopes (Roger-

Viollet) 193

Wong, H.S. 210,211

Wood, Paul 287

workers: documentary 95, 96, 99;

General Electric 251-3; labour

relations 230-2; photographing

79-81; women 81, 81(m)

Workers Photography movements

337-8

working classes 137-42, 147

Works News 252

A World History of Photography

(Rosenblum) 54, 54(m)

Worlds in a Small Room (Penn)

244

World Trade Center attacks 91,

339

written text 291-2

XYZ

X-rays 195

Zafar, Ali 221, 223, 224

Zamora, Lois 296, 296(m)

Ziv, llan 153