Hill, Paul

Approaching Photography

Hill, P. (2021) Approaching Photography. Abingdon: Routledge


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QuotesContentsIndex


Quotes

the pioneering photo-historians Beaumont Newhall and Helmut Gernsheim freely admitted in interviews that their historical narratives and timelines were subject to partial censorship by omission. Newhall largely ignored darkroom experimental work in his first book, and Gernsheim thought that there were no interesting American photographers after 1965.

p. xiv

Currently 17 trillion photographs are estimated to be made in a year. This, of course, is the result of the digital revolution and the rapid emergence of mobile phones that two-thirds of the world’s population own

p. xiv

Despite what we are often told, photographs do not ‘speak for themselves’ . Photography should be considered as a language, which means that its grammar and its syntax have to be learned before the medium can be fully explored and employed by the photographer.

p. 2

But should photographers worry whether they are elevated into the pantheon of great artists? As one respected late 20th-century artist and teacher (Lawrence Gowing) remarked: ‘Photography is more than Art.’ After all, painting can never have that descriptive authenticity inherent in photography. A photograph does reveal something other than aesthetic beauty – the photographer re-presents the external world, however internal his or her preoccupations.

p. 47

Contents

Foreword by Roger Taylor
Preface
Acknowledgements
Introduction

CHAPTER ONE
SEEING AND THINKING PHOTOGRAPHICALLY
Reading Photographs
Lenses and Angles
‘Flattening’ the 3-D World
Tones and Hues,
The Focal Point
Juxtaposition
Metaphors and Symbols

CHAPTER TWO
AFTER THE SHUTTER IS PRESSED
Understanding Images
Selection
Ambiguity
Making Prints
A Theme
Sequence and Series

CHAPTER THREE
ART AND COMMUNICATION
Influence of Photography on Art
Influence of Art on Photography
Links with Literature
Narrative Flow
The Moving Image
Mixed Media
Visual Impact

CHAPTER FOUR
HOW PHOTOGRAPHY IS USED
Captions and Tides
Galleries
Publishing and Reproduction
Commissions
Magazines
Newspapers
Photojournalism
Posters and Photomurals

CHAPTER FIVE
THE PHOTOGRAPHER AS WITNESS
Making a Record
Snapshots
Portraits
Content and Form
Documentary
Events

CHAPTER SIX
EXPERIENCING BEAUTY
Landscape and Nature
Natural Landscape
Manmade Landscape
Home Environment
The ‘Fine’ Print

CHAPTER SEVEN
IN SEARCH OF SELF AND THE METAPHOR
Self-expression
Reflecting the Human Condition
Spirit of Place
Sequencing

CHAPTER EIGHT
FROM P RINTED PAGE T O GALLERY WALL
New Outlets
New Documentary
Surrealism
Topographies

CHAPTER NINE
RADICAL CHANGES AND THE IMAGING FUTURE
Conceptual Art
Democratic Dissemination
Signs and Symbols
Photography and Politics
Postmodernism and Beyond
Digital photography
Conclusion,

Index


Index A-C

A

academia, and photography 136, 152, 154, 155

advertising xv, 54, 110, 155, 156, 158

ambiguity 2, 30, 30, 31-33, 138, 140, 169

(168)

angles 5, 7; wide-angle lenses 5, 5 , 51 , 54, 72,

140, 141

anti-capitalist politics 152

aperture: Aperture-Priority 15; and Exposure

Triangle 14-15

architecture, high-tech movement 146

Arnau, Keith, self-portrait (‘Tm a real artist”)

152

art and photography: camera lucida 44; camera

obscura 44; early developments 44;

freethinking artist 47, 49; influence of art

on photography 46, 47, 49; influence of

photography on art 46-47, 48; literature

and photography 49; mixed media 52, 52,

53, 54; moving image 51, 51; narrative

flow 50, 50; theory of perspective 44;

visual impact 54, 55; see also photography

in late 20th-2 lst century

‘art for art’s sake’ notion 47, 155

awareness (of light) 14-15

B

Baker, Deborah: man wearing glasses on bench

85; solitary figure 140

Baltz, Lewis, modern housing development 148

Barker, Mandy, Soup 52

beauty and landscape: 19th-century guidebooks

and printed views 100; ‘beautiful’

photographs and conservation issue 107;

‘beauty’ concept 107, 110; celebration of

Nature 100, 101-104; democratisation

of photography and tourism 100; home

environment 110, 111; idealisation

of exotic locations and tourism 11 0;

juxtaposition of the ugly and the beautiful

107; landscape, nature and conservation

105, 105, 106; manmade landscape 108-

109, 110; natural landscape 106-107;

photographing ‘the thing itself ‘ 107,

110; printing processes and ‘fine’ prints

112-113; search for romantic beauty in

art (Victorian times) 47, 100, 101; spirit

of place 110

Bedford, Francis, Watersmeet. The Two Streams

101

Bellis, Kate, Derbyshire hill farmers ( On the

Edge) 92-93

Bishcon, Derek, Handsworth Self Portrait

(Bishcon, Homer and Reardon) 84

black and white photography 8, 9, 12, 22

Blair, Tony, Tony Blair/burning oilfield

montage (kennardphillipps) 75

Blakemore, John: floating reeds 124; ‘whalelike’

rocks 19; Wounds on Trees 16

blocked-up highlights 26 (27), 27

blogging 66, 67, 67

blown highlights 22, 23

books (of/with photographs) 64, 65

bookworks 64

Bourne, Josie: condom ‘petals’ 166; woman

vacuuming the road 162

Brandt, Bill: Halifax mills 108; insect’s-eye

view of the world 141

Bunney, Tessa, Moor & Dale 91 (90)

Burgin, Victor, “What does possession mean to you?” 156

burning and dodging 34, 35, 164

by-lines 64, 136

C

Callahan, Harry, reflected television scene

floating over sidewalk 30

camera lucida 44

‘The camera never lies’ saying 34

camera obscura 44

camera vision 2

camera-generated pictures 167

cameras: digital cameras xiii, xiv, 9, 66; digital

single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras 4, 5,

164; drone cameras 32; see also lenses;

mobile phones

Campbell, Bryn, anti-Nazi rioters (Germany,

1969) 96

Canaletto 44

Caponigro, Paul: quarry face 28; couching

rocks and water 123

captions 59, 59 , 60 , 61, 61 , 96, 136

Cartier-Bresson, Henri, ‘decisive moment’

concept 29

Chapman, Jacky, fatally shot man and grieving

family 71

Charity, John, trees and chain-link fence 9

chemical processing 22, 24 , 25

chiaroscuro 108

Childerley, Zoe, Dissecting the West 109

cinematography 48, 51

citizen journalism 160, 163

collage 8, 52, 61, 167 (166)

colours: colour theory 14, 14; digital

manipulation of colour hues 36; inkjet

prints 22; monitor calibration 22; in

sequences 126; cones and hues 8, 9, 28;

see also dodging and burning

commissions 67, 68, 69

computer software technology: image

manipulation 23, 36, 52, 54, 164; virtualreality

galleries 67

conceptual art 47, 152, 153 , 154, 154

conservation (of natural landscape): and

‘beautiful’ photographs 107; in USA (lace

1800s) 105

contact sheets 25, 29, 29

content and form 58, 88, 91, 116, 126, 146

context/contextualisation xiii, 58, 58, 156, 158

Cook, George Smith, portrait of woman in

mourning with boy 83

Cooper, Thomas Joshua: Ceremonial Veil 124;

ruined building and tree 122 (123)

Courbet, Gustave 46

Cram, Marc 65

Crofts, Simon, East Lothian Community

Hospital phocomurals (Kowalczyk and

Crofts) 75

cropping 34

cul rural studies 1 5 5

cyanorype photogram 112


D-L

D

Dadaism 47, 154

‘decisive moment’ concept 29

Degas, Edgar, ‘frozen moment’ example 48

digital cameras xiii, xiv, 9, 66; DSLR (digital

single lens reflex) cameras 4, 5, 164

digital images 22

digital photography 164, 165, 166, 167, 167

digital platforms 15 5

digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras 4, 5,

164

documentary 89, 90, 91, 91, 92, 93; new

documentary 137, 138, 139, 140,

140, 141, 142, 142-145; objectivity vs

polemics 152; see also photo essays

dodging and burning 34, 35, 164

Dracup, Liza, Sharpe’s Wood 103

drone cameras 32

DSLR (digital single lens reflex) cameras 4, 5, 164

Dubuffer, Jean 44

Duchamp, Marcel, Nude Descending a Staircase

(No. 2,1912) 48

E

Eastman Kodak Company, ‘You press rhe

button, we do rhe rest’ slogan (1880s) xiii

Edwards, Mark, All Our Yesterdays and Todays

68

electronic imaging 164, 168

electronic publishing 66-67

emotions, and photography 116, 120

environmental portraits 86, 88

events 94 (95), 95-96, 96, 97

evidence, photograph as 80

exhibitions ourlers 62, 63, 136; see also galleries;

Internet; museums

exposure: exposure problems 22, 23; Exposure

Triangle 14-15

F

face recognition 167

‘fake news’ 160

Falconer, Maria: aerial dancer

Body Zero 162; dance

dancers in arr galleff 19:. 􀂹 –

7; Empty Fantasies 40; Keep Her Unnoticed

119; Matter ofTime series 38 ; portraits

on crucifixes and seagulls 163; refugees

(photographs on biog) 66; refugees with

child holding placard 74; Rocket to the

Park series 39; woman in pastiche of

fashion photo shoot 157

family snapshots 80, 81, 82, 120, 121;

‘snapshot aesthetic’ 82

feminist photographers 157,158,162,167

(166)

film: cinematography 48, 51; roll film xiii, 100

‘fine’ prints 112-113, 122

‘flattening’ 3-D world 8, 9

focal lengths 5

focal point 11-12, 11, 12, 13

form and content 58, 88, 91, 116, 126, 146

framing 4, 4

freethinking artist 4 7, 4 9

freezing (stilling) of rime 2, 3, 4

French Revolution, and freethinking artist 47

Freud, Sigmund 138

Fulton, Hamish, Cader Idris 153

Futurism 48

G

galleries 62, 63, 136, 152, 155, 163; virtualreality

galleries 67

Gernsheim, Helmut xiv

‘ghosting’ 17

Gillen, Paula, Live Collages 167 (166)

Godwin, Fay: Heptonstall, Yorkshire 104;

Landmarks (retrospective exhibition,

2001) x; Our Forbidden Land (cover

photograph) J 05

Gowin, Emmett, family scene with

watermelons 121

Gowing, Lawrence 47

Greaves, Andy, The Fall of Icarus 119

Griffin, Brian: group of people in Moscow 145;

managing director of book-publishing

firm 76

Grinly, David: Alva 149; image incorporating

rwo perspectives of same location 166

The Guardian, Father Christmas and short-term

employment (Paul Hill) 73

guidebooks (19th century) 100

Guzli, Peter, Tourist Guy 53

H

Hands, Paul, countryside broken gate and

electricity pylon 106

Handsworth Self Portrait (Bish ton, Homer and

Reardon) 84

hanging prints 62, 63

Harper, Mike, railings lagoon of Cumbrian

quarry 106

highlights: blocked-up highlights 26 (27), 27;

blown highlights 22, 23

high-rech movement (architecture) 146

Hill, Paul: Asian man in English foundry at break 90; Belfast resident and British

troops (1969) 96; Berlin Wall with graffiti

169 (168); black figure in snow-covered

landscape 14, 35; blown-over dress stand

on ground 139; bride drinking from bottle

3; car park disabled sign and boarded-up

‘Little Chef ‘ restaurant 147; ceramic-riled

room and shadow 139; child’s stencil of

sword looking like bird of prey 31; couple

under umbrella 3; cow par, bird footprints

and dung flies 58 ; Cumberland wrestling

5; dog and ‘ghosting’ effect 17; Edinburgh

skyline 36; elderly couple sleeping next to

car 121; Empty Fantasies 41 (40); Enoch

Powell and boy’s bubble gum 77; Enoch

Powell and woman supporter 50; Father

Christmas and short-term employment

73; framing photographs 4; gallery and

hanging prints 63; girl and shadow

forming man’s head 143; girl’s legs on

rock above river 118 ; graffiti and giltframed

photograph of child 137; grid of

mobile phone text messages ( Corridor of

Uncertainty) 165; Gypsy woman portrait

86; Harold Wilson smoking his pipe 77;

indecipherable written sign and green

lid 142; Light sequence 37; Malcolm

Muggeridge with giant video screen

behind him 161; man broadcasting from

home during Covid-19 pandemic 161;

man with aristocratic bearing and large

house 159; multimillionaire businessman

76; oil stain on countryside road 111;

old mine buildings and tree branch 12;

overexposed colour digital image 23;

overexposed female face 27; playing field

and factories 6; racing car and panning

51; red arrow ‘inserted’ into shadow of

person 12; refugee in wood 16; refugees

and ginger cat 95; refugees crapped

in Greece 160; sequence (Prenotations

and Corridor of Uncertainty) 126—-133;

shadows 1 0; sheep skeleton and shadow

of entwined couple on tree 117; stones as

improvised arrow on Pennine Way 147;

telephone kiosk among ferns 142; water

and tyre marks in black and white 8;

What Colour Is the Sun’ 61; wooden stakes

impaling anonymous body of person 118

Hilliard, John, Light Source 154

home environment 110, 111

Homer, Brian, Handsworth Self-Portrait

(Bishton, Homer and Reardon) 84

hues see under colours

human condition, reflecting 120, 121

humour 142,142, 167(166)

Hurn, David, swan among rubbish 18

I

Iddon, Henry, Spots of Time 103

ideological manipulation 158, 160; see also

propaganda

illusion 10, JO

image manipulation (with computer software)

23, 36, 52, 54, 164

Impressionism 47, 48

individual visions 35-36; see also personal

expression; search of self and the metaphor

inkjec printers 22, 164

integrity (of photographer) 58, 120, 168

Internet: blogging 66, 67, 67; camera-generated

pictures 167; digital platforms 155; as

exhibition outlet 62, 66-67, 66, 67,

167; images of women as sexual objects

158; newspapers’ websites 73; online

publishing 64; social media 62, 67, 160,

160, 163, 167

ISO (International Organization for

Standardization), and Exposure Triangle

14-15

J

Jackson, Don, coloured tissues outside paper

mill33

journalistic photography see photojournalism

juxtaposition 14, 14, 18

K

Kennard,P eter,T ony Blair/burning oilfield

montage (kennardphillipps) 75

Kodak see Eastman Kodak Company

Kokoschka, Oskar 76

Kowalczyk, Sylwia, Ease Lothian Community

Hospital photomurals (Kowalczyk and

Crofts) 75

L

landscape see beauty and landscape; spirit of

place; topographies

language, photography as 2, 152

Large, Christopher 65

Larkin, Philip 149

legal evidence, photograph as 80

lenses 5; telephoto lenses 5, 6, 156; wide-angle

lenses 5, 5, 51, 54, 72, 140, 141; zoom

lenses 5, 54

light, awareness of 14-15

literature, links with photography 49

Lockett, Nick, Derbyshire farming family

portrait 87

Lomas, Samantha 81

Lucas, Greg: boy at rifle range 11; “meteorite

landings” (Mrs Sharpe’s Cracks) 65


M-R

M

McCullin, Don, woman’s grief (1964 Cyprus

war) 94 (95)

magazines 54, 69, 89, 136, 155, 158; see also

newspapers; photojournalism

Makin, Steve, Mynydd Parys (Gwyn Parry and

Steve Makin) 65

Marey, Etienne-Jules, continuous-action image

48

meaning, in study of photography 15 5-156

media: public mistrust of 158-159; see also

Internet; magazines; mixed media;

newspapers; social media

media studies 160

metaphors: in photography I 5, 16; in

photography and literature 49; and

reflecting che human condition 120, 121;

and self-expression 116, 117-119; and

spirit of place 124; and Surrealism 140

Michals, Duane, The Man Who Invented

Himse/f60

Millet, Jean-Fran<;:ois 46

‘mistake’ (photographic) 10

misc-like effect 19

mixed media 52, 52, 53, 54

mobile phones: phone cameras/smartphones

viii, xiii, xiv, 64, 160, 161, 165, 167;

photograph of text messages 165;

photographs taken with phone cameras

39, 169 (168)

Modernism 47, 146, 162-163

monitor calibration 22

montage 52, 69, 75, 109, 163, 166

Moore, Raymond: clods of ploughed earth

through snow 13; dog framed in roadside

mirror 144; herd of cows 13

moving image 51, 51

Muggeridge, Malcolm, with giant video screen

behind him (Paul Hill) 161

Mulvany, John, self-portrait with ‘blocked-up’

highlights 26 (27)

murals see photomurals

museums 62, 63,136,152,155, 163

Muybridge, Eadweard 48

N

Nadar 47

narrative flow 50, 50

nature 100, 105; see also beauty and landscape

Nazis, use of photography by 158

negative/positive method 44

negatives (chemical processing) 22, 24, 25

Newhall, Beaumont xiv

newspapers 54, 70, 72-74, 89,136,155, 158;

businessmen 76; Christmas 73; politicians

77; refugees 74; scoop (suicide) 72;

violence in Mexico 71; see also magazines;

photojournalism

Newton, Ingrid, postcard (monochrome/colour

montage) 69

O

objectivity, and phorography 4, 89, 96, 107,

110, 120, 152

O’Meara, Adam, alternative photogram 113

(112)

online publishers 64

Ormerod, Michael, two trees and man walking

109

P

painting see arr and photography

Palmer, Roger, A Source of 1hree Industrial

Rivers 59

panning 51

Parry, Gwyn, Mynydd Parys (Gwyn Parry and

Steve Makin) 65

personal expression 48; see also individual

visions; search of self and the metaphor

perspective, theory of 44

Phillipps, Cat, Tony Blair/burning oilfield

montage (kennardphillipps) 75

phone cameras see mobile phones

photo essays 50, 51, 89, 91, 138; see also

documentary

photograms 112, 113 (112)

photographer: integrity of 58, 120, 168; as

‘victim’ 119, 120

photographic ‘mistake’ 10

photography: ambiguity of 2, 30, 30, 31-33,

138, 140, 169 (168); combining real

world and world of imagination 120;

critical evaluation of xiii-xiv; democratic

nature of xiv; democratisation of (late

19th century) xiii; democratisation of

(lace 19th century) and tourism 100;

disintegration of professional model xiv;

diversity of approaches xiii, xv; empirical

medium xiii; histories of photography

xiv; interpreting the world for oneself

xv; as language 2, 152; objectivity

issue 4, 89, 96, 107, 110, 120, 152;

philosophical, ethical and moral questions

xiv-xv, 54; representing the external

world and internal reactions to it xv;

‘truth’ issue 34, 54, 89; verisimilitude vs

transcending information xiv; see also arr

and photography; beauty and landscape;

photography in lace 20ch-2lsc century;

post-visualisation stage; search of self

and the metaphor; seeing and thinking

photographically; uses of photography;

witnessing

photography in lace 20ch-2lst century:

conceptual arr 152, 153, 154, 154;

democratic dissemination and artist/

photographer 155; democratic nature

of medium and ‘elite’ art world 146;

digital photography 164, 165, 166, 167,

167; greater respect for medium 136;

independent publishing and new outlets

(media/ academia) 136; introspective/

subjective/ experimental approaches

136; new documentary and Surrealism

137,138,139,140,140,141,142,

142-145; photography and politics

152,155, 156-157, 158,159,160,

160, 161; photography as arr form 152;

posrmodernism and beyond 162-163,

162, 163; signs, symbols and meaning

155-156, 156; theoretical approaches

152; topographies 146, 147-149

photojournalism 54, 70, 71, 136, 163; citizen

journalism 160, 163; see also magazines;

newspapers

photomurals 75-76, 75

Photo-Realism 47

photo-sculpture 52

Pictorialism 106, 107, 146, 162

picture stories 89

poetry: and photography 65; Romantic poets

103

policies: and photography 152, 155, 156-157,

158, 159, 160, 160, 161; politicians,

photographs of 50, 75, 77

portfolios 63, 125

portraits 83-88, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87;

environmental portraits 86, 88; portraits

without faces 88; self-portraits 116, 120

posters 75-76, 75

Post-Impressionism 48

Posrmodernism 47, 162-163, 162, 163

post-visualisation stage: about pose-visualisation

2, 17; ambiguity 30, 30, 31, 32, 33;

burning 34, 35; chemical processing and

negatives 22, 24, 25; contact sheers 25,

29, 29; cropping 34; digital images 22;

digital manipulation of colour hues 36;

dodging 34, 35; exposure problems 22,

23; highlights, blocked-up 26 (27), 27;

highlights, blown 22, 23; making prints

22, 34; selection 29; sequence and series

37, 38, 38, 39, 40-41, 40, 41; themes

and individual visions 35-36; ‘truth’ and

subjectivity 34

Powell, Enoch: and boy’s bubble gum (Paul

Hill) 77; and woman supporter (Paul Hill)

50

practice 14, 17, 54

Pre-Raphaelite painting 46

pre-visualisation 2, 4; see also seeing and

chinking photographically

primed views {19th century) 100

prints: ‘fine’ prints 112-113, 122; hanging

prints 62, 63; inkjet prints 22, 164;

making prints 22, 34; printing paper 22,

63

propaganda 96, 158; see also ideological

manipulation

psychological approach: psychological

landscape 138; ‘psychological’

photographs 116; sequence as

psychological document 125

publishing: books 64, 65; electronic publishing

66-67; independent publishing 136;

online publishing 64; self-publishing 64,

65, 69

publishing software 64

Q

R

RAW files 23

reading photographs 2, 4

Realise painting 46-47

Reardon, John, Handsworth Self Portrait

(Bishton, Homer and Reardon) 84

Reas, Paul, dance class in Wales 85

Robinson, Henry Peach, Fading Away 46

roll film xiii, 100

Romantic poets 103


S-Z

S

Sadler, Richard, view from high-rise building 7

Salmon, Nie, reflections on portrait project

(photographs on biog) 67

Sank, Michelle, young man in bedroom (My

Self project) 86

Scharf, Aaron ix

‘scoop’ pictures 70, 72, 74

search of self and the metaphor: emotions,

inner feelings and metaphors 116, 120;

reflecting the human condition 120, 121;

self-expression 116, 117-119; sequencing

125, 126-133; spirit of place 122, 122

(123), 123-124, 125; see also individual

visions; personal expression

seeing and thinking photographically: awareness

14-15; camera vision 2; Exposure Triangle

14-15; ‘Battening’ 3-D world 8, 9; focal

point 11-12, 11, 12, 13; framing 4, 4;

‘ghosting’ 17; illusion and photographic

‘mistake’ 10, 10; juxtaposition 14, 14, 18;

lenses and angles 5, 5, 6, 7; metaphors

and symbols 15, 16; misc-like effect 19;

practice 14, 17; pre-visualisation 2, 4;

reading photographs 2, 4; stilling/freezing

of time 2, 3, 4; cones and hues 8, 9; see also

pose-visualisation stage

selection 29

self-expression 116, 117-119; see also search of

self and the metaphor

selfies 82

self-portraits 116, 120

self-publishing 64, 65; zines 69

semiology, and photography 155-156

sequence and series 37, 38, 38-40, 40-41, 41,

51, 125, 126–133

shadows 10, 12, 14,117,139,143

Shakeshaft, Marcin: aerial image of agricultural

land 32; aerial image of managed

moorlands 105; triptych ofWelsh mine/

miner 87

‘shoot first and ask questions lacer’ 54

shutter speed: and Exposure Triangle 14-15;

Shutter-Priority 15

signs (signified and signifiers), and photography

155-156, 156, 163

Simmons, Mike, reflection on death of facher

(mixed media) 53

smarcphones see mobile phones

snapshots 80, 81, 82, 120, 121; ‘snapshot

aesthetic’ 82

social media 62, 67, 160, 160, 163, 167

Sorgi, I. Russell, Suicide (1942) 72

Spence, Jo, Me at 8 ½ months and Me at 44

years 9 months 84

spirit of place 110,122,122 (123), 123-124,

125

Steele-Perkins, Chris, National Front marchers/

anti-racists clashes (Lewisham, London,

1977) 97

Scieglicz, Alfred 84

stilling (freezing) of time 2, 3, 4

strobe Bash 51

Surrealism 47; and new documentary 138, 140,

140,141,142, 142-145

symbols 15, 16, 140, 155

T

Talbot, William Henry Fox: 19ch-century

haystack 45 (44); negative/positive

method 44

Taylor, Roger, foreword viii-ix

teaching (of photography) 136, 152, 154, 155

telephoto lenses 5, 6, 156

themes and individual visions 35-36

theoretical approaches (to photography) 152

‘the thing itself’ (celebrating/photographing)

107, 110

tides 59, 59, 60, 61, 61

cones and hues see under colours

topographies 146, 147-149

tourism: and democratisation of photography

100; and idealisation of exotic locations

110

truth: and electronic imaging 168; and the

media 158-159; and photography 34,

54,89

typologies 40

U

UKIP, “Breaking Point” poster 156

university/college courses 136, 152, 154, 155

uses of photography: books (monographs and

V

others) 64, 65 ; captions and cities 59,

59, 60, 61, 61 ; commissions 67, 68,

69; context and interpretations 58, 58;

galleries and other exhibition oudets

62, 63 ; hanging prints 62, 63 ; Internee,

blogging and electronic publishing

66-67, 66, 67; magazines and zines 69;

newspapers 70, 71, 72-74, 72, 73, 74;

portfolios 63; posters and phoromurals

75-76, 75; publishing and reproduction

64, 65; virtual-reality galleries 67

V

‘victim’: photographer as 119, 120; in

photographs of events 97; in portraits 86,

87

Victorian times, and search for romantic beauty

in art 47, 100, 101

virtual-reality galleries 67

visual impact 54, 55

W

Wallace, Rachel, funeral procession in field 82

Ware, Mike, cyanotype phorogram 112

Washburn, Bradford, snow-covered mountain

vista 102

Weston, Edward, Pepper No.30 (1930) 107

wide-angle lenses 5, 5, 51, 54, 72, 140, 141

Williamson, Mick, contact sheets as pages of

diary 29

Wilson, Harold, smoking his pipe (Paul Hill)

77

Winogrand, Garry 59

witnessing: documentary 89, 90, 91, 91, 92,

93; events 94 (95), 95-96, 96, 97; making

a record 80; portraits 83-88, 83, 84,

85, 86, 87; portraits, environmental 86,

88; portraits without faces 88; selfies 82;

snapshots 80, 81, 82, 82

Wolmuth, Philip, fungus and peeling wallpaper

58

women: as sexual objects 157, 158; see also

feminist photographers

Wordsworth, William: ‘I wandered lonely as

a cloud’ 49; and Iddon’s Spots o/Time

project 103

XYZ

Yellowstone national park (USA) 105

Yosemite (USA) 105

zines 69

zoom lenses 5, 54