Grundberg, Andy

How photography became contemporary art

Grundberg, A. (2021) How photography became contemporary art. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press.


QuotesContentsIndex


Quotes

That’s one of the central problems of history, isn’t it, sir? The question of subjective versus objective interpretation, the fact that we need to know the history of the historian in order to understand the version that is being put in front of us.-

Julian Barnes, The Sense of an Ending, 2011, quoted in Grundberg p.1

Flash ahead fifty years. One would need to search hard to find a contemporary gallery or museum that does not include photography. Not only photographs, but also video, which has largely replaced film as the preferred medium for making and presenting moving images. Photography is now the subject of headliner shows at major museums, of PhD theses in art-history departments and of MFA degrees in studio art programs (including Cornell’s), of books of art criticism that liberally quote from some of the important thinkers of the past century, including Roland Barthes, Walter Benjamin, Michel Foucault, and Susan Sontag. Original black-and-white prints that magazine editors once routinely discarded after using them to make halftone reproductions now command prices at auction of tens if not hundreds of thousands of dollars.

p.2

The idea that the art of photography is determined by photography
itself justified the creation of independent histories of photography written more or less without regard for contemporaneous histories of art. The earliest of these focused more on technological progress than on the makers of outstanding pictures, but Beaumont Newhall’s 1937 The History of Photography, the first real American attempt, inverted that emphasis, placing individual pictures and picture makers at the center of its narrative even as it recapitulated the notion that scientific and technological breakthroughs helped propel aesthetic ones. Little was said about painting.
This was the history enshrined at the Museum of Modern Art, where
Newhall led a department of photography established in 1940, and the one I read when I was getting seriously interested in photography. It was an account revivified in the sixties by John Szarkowski, then the director of the photography department at the Museum of Modern Art, who essentially mixed Lady Eastlake’s argument for photography’s uniqueness with the Modernist imprimatur of critic Clement Greenberg. In the exhibition / book The Photographer’s Eye (1964/1966), Szarkowski listed five essential characteristics of the medium: the thing itself, the detail, the frame, time, and the vantage point. Contemporary photographers hoping to enter the aesthetic discourse of photographic practice produced work that reflected on these characteristics and, more generally, on “the photographic,” the idea
that whatever else a photograph is about, it ultimately is about the nature of photography itself.

p.4

The Pictorialists made their case for photography being an art by producing photographs that looked as if they had been made by hand. The only trouble was, art itself – the kind of advanced art centered in Paris that became known as avant-garde was changing so rapidly at the turn of the century that these photographers’ efforts came to seem retardataire. Among those caught in the middle was Alfred Stieglitz, a German-born New Yorker who is often credited with single-handedly promoting the acceptance of the idea of photography-as-art in the first half of the twentieth century. The young Stieglitz was a wholehearted Pictorialist, a leader of a largely American Pictorialist group called the Photo-Secession, until a trip to Paris with Edward Steichen in 1907 introduced him to truly modern artists like Auguste Rodin, Paul Cezanne, Pablo Picasso, Constantin Brancusi, and Henri Matisse. At his modest gallery on Fifth Avenue, called the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession when it opened in 1905 and later known as 291, he alternated new European art with Pictorialist photography shows.

p.5

Gordon [Matta-Clark] represented an introduction to contemporary art’s leading edge, prompting me to visit galleries and museum shows that had nothing to do with photography but offered insight into what artists of my and previous generations were thinking. His reliance on photographs and his fascination with the plastic qualities of camera images challenged the boundaries I had absorbed of what photography was supposed to look like and do to be art. What offered itself as a quandary turned out to be a blessing; I lost my interest in the old questions-Is photography art? What kind of art is it?-and started thinking about a new one: Would the art of our time exist without it?

p.34

The art of the Bechers has levels of meaning and reference, but all of them are distinct and apparent. It is an art (photography) dealing with a subject matter that is itself an art (architecture), using a system of morphology and typology that is well-established in formalist art history, in terms of a recognizable artistic attitude (Romanticism).


Carl Andre, Artforum, December 1972, quoted on p.62

Finally the lights came back on, and we all looked at each other to judge what to do next. (Was this intermission? Would it be rude to put on our coats?) Mercifully Ted [Greenwald] appeared by the door, signaling that it was over. The night watchmen had done their thing. I can distinctly remember being annoyed and confused on my way home afterward. Was Ted pulling our collective leg? I was, I realized, still in the dark long after the lights came back on. And I don’t think I was alone: the audience members dispersed rather quickly, seemingly not eager to have a conversation about something they didn’t fully comprehend.
I have since come to recognize this feeling of being at sea with my own experience as something not to be ignored. If anything, it is an infallible indicator that one may be experiencing real art … or at least real contemporary art.

p.67

to be continued


Contents

Introduction

Prelude, 1962

Arrival

Down to Earth

Getting the Concept

Performers, Bodies, Cameras

Boom Years

Crossing Over

Video, the Other Newcomer

Theory

The Image World Meets the Art World

Essentials for the Eighties

Inventions of Pure Imagination

Expanded Terrain

Culture Wars

Moving On

Epilogue


Index A-C

A

Abbott, Berenice, 1 o, 183
Abramovic, Marina, 2, 165
Abstract Expressionism, 6, 16, 264
Acconci, Vito, 68, 71-73, 72, 94, 131, 133,160
Accumulation Cut (Oppenheim), 46, 47
Adams, Ansel, 9, 83, 108, 119, 182-83, 196
Adams, Robert, 108-9, 109,121, 179, 182, 198-99, 262
Afterimage, 112,114,137,145, 272 n19
Against Interpretation (Sontag), 146
Agassiz, Louis, 246, 278n8
AIDS, 229, 231-32, 241
A.1.R. Gallery, 78
Altered Landscapes (Pfahl), 9, 195, 196
alternative processes, 98
Ambulance Disaster (Warhol), 12
American Prospects (Sternfeld), 204
Americans, 7he (Frank), 204
American Surfaces (Shore), 89
An Artist is Not Merely the Slavish
Announcer … (Baldessari), 52
Andre, Carl, 62, 81
Androgyny (6 Men+ 6 Women) (Burson), 256, 257
Annina Nosei Gallery, 174, 176, 202, 273n20
Ant Farm, 136, 137
Antin, Eleanor, 74-75, 203
Apertures (Metzker), 96
April 21, 1978 (Charlesworth), 171
Arbus, Diane, 7, 21, 104,212,262
Are You Rea (Heinecken), 97, 98
Arrangements of Pictures, 169,170
Artforum: Bechers, 62; Benglis, 76, 77; Coleman, 195; color photography, 122-23; Energism, 268n1 (chap. 6); Hennessy, 174-75; LeWitt, 59; Masheck, 62; McEvilley, 159; Morris, 76-77, 76; Muybridge, 62; photography as art, 146, 153, 175; Postmodernism, 180; Sekula, 154; Sherman, 180
Art Institute of Chicago 2, Chicago
(Struth), 238
Artists Space, 156; Four Artists, 163;
Hallwalls, 160; NEA, 230-31; Pictures, 161, 191; Winer, 161
Art of the Postmodem Era (Sandler), 10, 53
“Art Wars” (Brustein), 227
At Twelve (Mann), 234
Avalanche, 31, 41, 44
Avedon, Richard, 86, 214-16, 215

B

Baldessari, John, 63-64; An Artist is Not
Merely the Slavish Announcer . .. , 52;
Baldessari Sings LeWitt, 135; Blasted
Allegories, 63,105,194; CalArts, 159-60;
California Photography: Remaking
Make-Believe, 64; Conceptual Art, 60,
63-64; Cremation Project, 63; Embed
Series: Cigar Dreams (Seeing is Believing),
105, 105; Embed Series: Rose;
Orange (Death), 105; 7he Extended Document,
104-5; John Baldessari: Recent
Paintings, 63; photography, 64-65;
“Post-Studio Art,” 64, 159-60; 7he Real
Big Picture, 202; Sonnabend, 94; Strobe
Series/Futurist: Trying To Get A Straight
Line With A Finger, 64, 105; Teaching a
Plant the Alphabet, 135; 7hrowing Four
Balls in the Air to Get a Square [Best of
36 Tries], 105; video, 135; Winer, 161;
Wrong, 63-64
Baldwin, James, 215
Ballad of Sexual Dependency, n1e
(Goldin), 184-86, 234, 274n11
Baltz, Lewis: art world, 65; 7he New
Industrial Parks near Irvine, California,
93, 109-10, 110; New Topographies,
111, 262; 7he Real Big Picture, 202;
Robert Adams, 109; Southeast Comer,
Semicoa, 333 McCormick, Costa Mesa,
110; Whitney Biennial, 198
Bare Legs by Store (Cohen), 90
Barney, Tina, 112,142,142, 201-2, 254
Barrie, Dennis, 227, 229
Barrow, Thomas, 91, 98-99, 100,104,106,
269n20
Barthes, Roland, 148-52, 179, 194, 252
Baudrillard, Jean, 149, 150
Bauhaus, 6, 14-15, 95, 101
Beauty in Photography: Essays in Defense
of Traditional Values (Robert Adams),
182
Becher, Bernd and Hilla, 60-63; art
world, 252-53; Morphologies and
Anonymous Sculptures, 62; New Topographies,
62, 108, 11 o, 262; 7he Real
Big Picture, 202; Sonnabend, 94; Water
Towers, 61, 61; Wingate, 94
Benglis, Lynda, 76-77, 77, 268n8 (chap.
5)
Benjamin, Walter, 17, 22, 145, 147-48
Best of Life, 7he (Muniz), 247, 248
Big Pictures by Contemporary Photographers,
141-42, 201
Bird Transformation (Mendieta), 79
Birnbaum,D ara,1 27,1 38-39,1 38,1 43
Bishop, Michael,1 04,1 06,1 13
Black Mountain, 14
Blasted Allegories (Baldessari), 63, 105,
194
Blind Man, 7he (Duchamp), 53
Blondes/Brunettes (Wegman), 105-6, 106
Blumberg, Skip, 127, 137
Bockler, Ursula, 260
Boltanski, Christian, 62-63, 94, 203
Boomerang (Serra/Holt), 131
Boone, Mary, 174,176,208,220,221,241
Borden, Janet, 112, 220
Brauntuch, Troy, 159,161, 163-64, 163,
168
Brodovitch, Alexey, 95, 242, 269n19
Brooks, Ellen, 34, 172, 195-97, 197,202
Buchloh, Benjamin, 139, 153, 174, 222
Buffalo, 114,156,157, 160-61, 183,251
Burden, Chris, 68, 69,161,213
Burson, Nancy, 256-57, 256, 278n12

C

California Institute of the Arts (CalArts),
159-61
California Photography: Remaking
Make-Believe, 64
Callahan, Harry, 14, 20, 91, 95,155,199
Callis,Jo Ann, 64,121,203
“Camera Art” (Levine), 146
Camera Obscura View of Brookline from
Brady’s Bedroom (Morell), 251
Campus, Peter, 93, 124, 131-32, 138
Cancellations (Barrow), 98-99, 100,106
Cape Light (Meyerowitz), 117, 155
Car Crash (Dine), 45
Carey, Ellen, 160, 250-52, 250
Casebere,J ames,9 , 165, 166, 172,
195-96, 202-3
Castelli, Leo, 25, 92-93, 132-33, 200,
271n6 (chap. 8)
Catalysis IV (Piper), 73, 74
Caught in the Act (Antin), 75
Champion Pig, 7he (Norfleet), 213
Charlesworth, Sarah, 170-72, 171, 194
Chelsea, 25,241, 263
Chi, Tseng Kwong, 241,243,244
Chicago Seven, 7he (Avedon), 215
Chott el-Djerid (A Portrait in Light and
Heat) (Viola), 140
Christenberry, William, 115, 121-22, 121,
27on24
Chromo-7herapy (Nagatani), 197
Church, Sprott, Alabama (Christenberry),
121
Cibachrome, 32, 172,230,249
Circular Surface Planar Displacement
Drawing/90   Vertical Planar Rotary
(Heizer), so
Circus (Matta-Clark), 32, 33
Clock (One and Five), English/Latin
Version (Kosuth), 266-67n5
Close,Chuck, 119-20, 202,235
Cohen, Mark, 89, 90

Coke, Van Deren, 90, 151, 195
Coleman, A. D., 146, 153, 195-96
Colorado (Robert Adams). 109
Colored People (Weems}, 246
Color Field painting, 163, 174
color photography, 118-23, 240
Co/or Theory (Carey}, 250
Composites (Metzker}, 95
Conceptual Art, 51, 53-65
Conical Intersect (Matta-Clark}, 32, 33
connoisseurs, 222
contextualists, 222
Conversions (Acconci}, 73
copy machines, 99-101
Cornell University, 1-2, 22, 27, 28, 43-46
Cowin, Eileen, 91, 182, 196-97, 198
Cremation Project (Baldessari}, 63
Crimp, Douglas, 17,153, 161-62, 174,211
Crocus (Rauschenberg}, 13, 14
Cross-References: Sculpture into Photography,
203
Cruel and Tender, 262-63
Cumming, Robert: art world, 269n3
(chap. 7}; Coleman, 195-96; A Discourse
on Domestic Disorder, 107; 8
Year Old Girl, 6 Month Old Weed, 107;
fabricated to be photographed, 195-96;
14 American Photographers, 108; The
Friends of Photography, 108; Photography
Until Now, 239; Two Views of One
Mishap of Minor Consequence, 107, 107;
Watermelon/Bread, 107


D-L

D

daguerreotype, 3-4, 188, 246, 249-50,
278n8
Day’s End (Pier 52) (Matta-Clark}, 31, 32
deconstruction, 149-50, 271-72n9
Deja-Vu {Gibson}, 88
Deli Package, New York (Penn}, 216
Deluxe Photo Book 1971-73 (Burden},6 9
dematerialization, 56, 267n9
Derrida,J acques,1 49, 271-72n9
Desmarais, Charles, 112-13, 121
Dialectics of Isolation: An Exhibition of
Third World Women Artists of the
United State, 80
Dibbets, Jan: Dutch Mountain, so; Earth
Art, 28; Earth Art (show}, 45, 49, 51;
Muybridge, 59; On the Art of Fixing a
Shadow: One Hundred and Fifty Years of
Photography, 235; The Real Big Picture,
201-2; Tide (Vloed), so, 50
Die Photographie ist auch nicht mehr
dos was sie ma/ war (Photography
isn’t anymore what it used to be)
{Kippenberger), 260
directorial mode, 195
Discourse on Domestic Disorder, A
(Cumming}, 107
Dis/armer, Mike, 213
Divola,John, 121, 197-98, 199
Door County Uachna), 96
Double Negative (Heizer}, 40, 48, 49
Double Rembrandt with Steps (Starns},
206,207
Double Vision (Campus}, 131
Dovima with Elephants (Avedon}, 86
280 Index
Downey.Juan, 127, 137-38
Duchamp, Marcel, 43, 51, 53-54, 69,
266n, (chap. 4)
Dumpster Duplex (Matta-Clark}, 30, 30
Dusseldorf, 60, 253, 278n10
Dutch Mountain (Dibbets}, so

E

Earth Art movement: Antin, 74; art and
document, 262; Cornell show, 28,
43-47, 44, 46, 47; Dibbets, 49, 59; earthworks,
45; Earthworks (show}, 266n5
(chap. 3}; Gorgoni, so; Haacke, 49;
Heizer, 48, 49; Mendieta, 79; Oppenheim,
49; photography, 8, 51, 69, 134;
Smithson, 47; women, 268n2 {chap. s)
Eastman, George, 103. See also George
Eastman House
East Meets West (Chi}, 244
East Village, 175-76, 207,219,241,
275n10
Eauclaire, Sally, 121,203
Eggleston, William, 21,111,114, 115-17,
203, 262-63
8 Year Old Girl, 6 Month Old Weed
(Cumming}, 107
Elephant (Wegman}, 120
Embed Series {Baldessari}, 1 os
Equivalent (Stieglitz}, 152
Equivalent {Uelsmann), 88, 89
Estel{ (Meiselas}, 210
Eternal Frame, The (T. R. Uthco}, 137
Evans, Walker, 112, 119,169,204, 262-63
Every Building on the Sunset Strip
(Ruscha}, 19
Evidence (Sultan/Mandel}, 192, 193,
194-95
Extended Document: An Investigation
of Information and Evidence in Photographs,
The, 103-7, 135
Eye Body: 36 Transformative Actions for
Camera (Schneemann}, 70, 70
Eye Body #11 (Schneemann}, 70

F

fabricated to be photographed, 195
Falkland Road, Bombay, India (Mark},
211,212
Family Docudrama (Cowin}, 198
Family of Man, The, 6, 20,154,217
Female Figure (Rauschenberg/Weil},
15, 15
Feminist Art Program, 159
Ferns (Skoglund}, 200
Figures (Charlesworth}, 171
Fireflies (Larson), 99
Fischl, Eric, 159, 176, 275n, 7, 277n14
Following Piece (Acconci}, 71-72
Folly, Suicy, Man Ray (Wegman), 105
Food for the Spirit {Piper}, 73
Foster, Hal, 153, 174, 176, 240
Fountain (Duchamp/Stieglitz}, 43, 53-54,
54, 266n1 (chap. 4), 266n2 {chap. 4)
Four Artists (Artists Space}, 163
Four Fur Cutting Boards (Schneemann},
70
420 West Broadway, 92, 94, 241, 269n14
14 American Photographers (Cumming},
108
14 Pictures (Eggleston}, 115
Frank, Robert, 20, 199, 204, 262
Frankfurt School. 22, 147, 153, 271n4
{chap. 9)
Friedlander, Lee, 7, 20, 21, 83, 86, 104,
262
Friends of Photography, 108, 182, 239
From Hand to Mouth (Nauman}, 133
From Here I Saw What Happened and I
Cried {Weems}, 246-47
Fuss, Adam, 101, 248-49, 249

G

Gay Semiotics (Murray}, 153
Geldzahler, Henry, 13,118,217
General Jungle or Carrying on Sculpting,
The {Gilbert and George}, 94
Generative Systems, 101
George Eastman House (Eastman
House}, 21, 62, 101, 103, 112-13, 269n,
Gibson, Ralph, 10, 65, 82, 88,211
Gilbert and George, 62, 94, 202
Glass Tears (Ray}, 263
Glueck, Grace, 126-28
Goldin, Nan, 91, 166, 178, 184-86, 202,
234, 274n11
Goldstein, Jack, 64, 157, 159, 161-64,
168,174
Gorgoni, Gianfranco, 49-50
Gowin, Emmet, 35, 91, 109
Graham, Dan, 59-60, 60, 118, 123, 160
Grass Grows {Haacke}, 43-44, 46
Great Pipes Monument, The (Smithson},
49
Greenwald, Ted, 27, 37, 67
Groover, Jan: Artforum, 122-23, 146; Bordeaux,
241; color photography and art
world, 122; Eastman House, 112; Graham,
60; “The Medium Is the Use,” 146;
The New Co/or Photography (Eauclaire},
203; Sonnabend, 94; Untitled, 102;
Whitney Biennial, 199
Gross, Gary, 167
Guerrilla Television (Shamberg}, 136
Guest (Bucklow}, 250
Gursky, Andreas, 252, 255-56, 255, 263

H

Haacke, Hans, 41-46, 42, 46, 49-51, 54,
58,229
Halloween Revelers at the Waldorf Astoria,
New York (Grund berg}, 38, 39
Hallwalls, 160-61, 251
Hangers (Skoglund}, 200
Happenings, 69, 118, 159
Hartshorn, Willis “Buzz,” 113, 214, 220
Harvey, Michael, 168
Hatsu-Yume (First Dream) (Viola}, 140
Haxton, David, 63,199,201,203
Haystack Cone, Freeport, Maine (Pfahl},
196
Heiferman, Marvin, 90-91, 156,165,
201-2,241,273n17, 277-78n4
Heinecken, Robert, 64, 97-98, 98, 104,
179
Heizer, Michael, 40, 44, 45, 48-49
Hennessy, Richard, 174-75
Herald, 36-37, 148
Herb Schiller Reads the New York Times,
136
Heresies, 78, 80, 149
heroin chic, 217
History of Photography, 1he (Newhall),
4, 19
Hitler Moves East (Levinthal/Trudeau),
112, 192-93, 192,195, 274n, (chap.12)
Hockney, David, 63,112, 117-18, 201-3,
235
Holly Solomon Gallery, 27, 30, 35, 92,
202,257
Holt, Nancy, 49, 131
Holzer.Jenny, 219,229
Homes for America {Graham), 59-60,
60, 118
Hopps, Walter, 19, 53-54, 115
Hot Light/Half-Mode Worlds: Photographs
from the Tropics (Webb), 224
Huebler, Douglas, 55-57, 55, 93, 104,
170,202
Hujar, Peter, 144, 232, 241
Human and Animal Locomotion
(Muybridge), 59, 267n 1 o
Hypothesis (Piper), 73

I

ICP. See International Center of
Photography
identity art, 247
Image, 114,145
Image of Desire: Portrayals in Recent
Advertising Photography, 278n5
Image Scavengers: Photography, 174, 211
Immediate Family (Mann), 234
Immigrants Going down Gangplank, New
York (Hine), 154
Incendiary Wafers (Matta-Clark), 30
Indomitable Spirit: Photographers and
Artists Respond to the Time of AIDS,
The, 241, 277n4
Information, 50-51, 54, 56, 61, 73
In Plato’s Cave (Solomon-Godeau). 172
Institute of Contemporary Art
(Philadelphia), 137, 174, 227, 229, 257
Interior (Majore), 219
Interior Scroll (Schneemann), 71
International Center of Photography
(ICP), 155,212,214,220,241
Interview magazine, 119,161,208
In the American West, 216
Irving Penn: Street Material, 217

J

Jachna, Joseph, 96
Jenkins, William, 62, 103-4, 108-9,
112-13, 262, 27ons
John Bafdessari: Recent Paintings, 63
Jonas.Joan, 93,128, 132-33, 132,160,
271n5 (chap. 8)
Josephson, Kenneth, 96, 97,104
Jumps (Acconci), 72, 12

K

Kaprow, Allan, 45, 69,118,159
Kennedy,John F., 8,137,166
Kertesz, Andre, 1 o, 35, 86, 91
Kiefer, Anselm, 174, 235, 252, 275n, 7
Kingman Holiday (Barrow), 100
Kippenberger, Martin, 260
Kiss the Girls: Make Them Cry (Birnbaum),
138
Kitchen, the, 131,139,232
Kitchen Table Series, The (Weems), 246,
246
Klein, Michael, 162, 164-65
Kodak, 103, 118, 257-58
Koons, Jeff, 203-5, 208,219,263
Kosuth, Joseph, 54-56, 93, 170, 202,
266-67n5
Kramer, Hilton: as critic, 155; Eggleston,
115-16; Grund berg, 125-26; Mark,
211-12; “museumization” of photography,
194,222; symposium, 151, 153
Krauss, Rosalind: Barthes, 1 so; Benglis,
n; Crimp, 162; “index ” or “trace,” 248;
“Notes on the Index: Seventies Art in
America,” 150; October editorial, 145;
Penn, 276n7; “Photography: Where
We Are,” 151-52, 153; Pierce, 150; PS1,
150-51; “Television/Society/Art,” 139;
Woodman, 186, 188
Krims, Les, 87-89, 195-96
Kruger, Barbara, 139,170, 172-74, 173,
176,194

L

Larson, William, 91, 98-99, 99
Lawler, Louise, 162-63, 169, 170, 182
Lawson, Thomas, 168,174,219
Le, Dinh 0., 244
Leavitt, Thomas, 45, 46
Levine,S herrie,1 94; Image Scavengers,
174; Mary Boone Gallery, 176;
Metro Pictures, 168; photographs of
photographs, 9; Pictures (show), 161;
Pictures: Photographs (show), 166;
Presidents, 166, 167; Untitled (President
Collage: 4), 167; Weston, 169; Whitney
Biennial, 172
Levinthal, David, 9,112,172, 192-94,
192,195
Levitt, Helen, 1 o, 86, 116, 155
LeWitt, Sol, 57-59; Autobiography, 58;
Baldessari, 135, 160; Big Pictures by
Contemporary Photographers, 201;
Brick Wall, 58; Buried Cube Containing
an Object of Importance but Little Value,
46; Conceptual Art, 54, 57; Constructivism,
267n14; Muybridge I, 58, 267n13;
Muybridge II, 58, 59; Muybridge plates,
267n16; “Paragraphs on Conceptual
Art,” 59; photographic meaning, 104;
PhotoGrids, 58; Schematic Drawings
for Muybridge II, 1964, 59; Sentences
on Conceptual Art, 135; Serial Project,
267n14; Three Part Variations on Three
Different Cubes, 267n14
Light Gallery, 3, 89-92, 182, 204; Barrow,
98; Callahan, 95, 96, 155; Gohlke, 108;
Groover, 123; Heiferman, 165; Jones,
114; Metzker, 1 ss; Michals, 88;
Moholy-Nagy, 95, 96; Samaras, 119;
Shore, 108, 111; Siskind, 95, 96
Likely Stories (Heiferman), 156
Livingston.Jane, 151, 153
Longo, Robert, 160-61, 164, 168, 170,
174,219
Looking at Photographs (Szarkowski),
145
Lotringer, Sylve re, 150, 272n1 o
Love (Fuss), 249
Lucier, Mary, 139-40, 140-41
Lyons, Nathan, 21-23, 112-14, 183,
265n7 (chap. 1)


M-R

M

Made in Heaven (Koons), 205
Magic Finger (Self-Portrait with Pointing
Finger}, 1he (Sheridan), 100
Magnet TV (Paik), 129-30, 129
Magnum Photos, 211,214, 223-24
Main Street, Gull Lake, Saskatchewan,
August 18, 1974 (Shore), 111
Majore, Frank, 34, 219, 220
Making Chicken Soup (Krims), 87
Making Megalopolis Matter, 41
Mandel, Mike, 192, 193, 194-95
Mann, Sally, 234, 250
Man Ray (artist), 6, 69, 263, 275n16
Man Ray (dog), 105,119,135
Mapping the Studio I Fat Chance John Cage, 134
Mapplethorpe, Robert: AIDS, 241; Art and
Advertising: Commercial Photography
by Artists, 220; National Endowment
for the Arts, 229; obscenity trial, 227-
30; On the Art of Fixing o Shadow: One
Hundred and Fifty Years of Photography,
235; The Perfect Mament, 227, 229;
Postmodernism, 277n8; Self-Portrait,
228, 228; Solomon, 27; Whitney Biennial,
199; X Portfolio, 232-35
“Marginalia: The Original Sin ” (McEvilley),
159
Mark, Mary Ellen, 211,212
Mary Boone (Winokur), 221
Matta-Clark, Gordon, 27-34, 46, 150-51;
Cibachrome, 32-34, 266n3 (chap. 2);
Circus, 32-33; Conical Intersect, 32-33,
33; Cornell, 28; Day’s End (Pier 52), 31,
32; Dibbets, 28; Dumpster Duplex, 30,
30; Food, 25, 28; Incendiary Wafers, 30;
98 Greene Street Loft, 28, 29; Office
Baroque, 32-33; 112 Greene Street, 28,
29, 151, 268n9; Open House, 30; Oppenheim,
28, 47; Photo Fry, 29, 35; Rope
Bridge, 28, 28; Simon, 29, 30; Splitting,
24, 30-32, 33; Walls Paper, 29, 29
McEvilley, Thomas, 159
Meat}oy (Schneemann), 70
Medalla, David, 44, 45
“Media Arts in Transition, The,” 139
Media Burn (Ant Farm), 136, 137
Mein Kampf (Levinthal), 193
Meiselas, Susan, 179,210, 223-24
Memory Rendering of Kiss at Times
Square (Muniz), 247, 248
Mendieta, Ana, 66, 71, 79-81, 79, 189,
268n9
Men in the Cities (Longo), 170
Metro Bus Show, 160
Metro Pictures, 162-65, 168-70, 174-75
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 21 s, 217,
243
Metzker, Ray, 91, 95-96, 96, 155
Meyerowitz.Joel, 117,111,119,203
Michals, Duane, 88, 88, 195, 198, 199
Michelson, Annette, 77. 145
Minimalism, 19, 73, 110
Mirror Displacement (Smithson), 47-48
Model, Lisette, 37
Modern History (Charlesworth), 170
Modernism, 142-43, 152, 162, 174
Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo, 6, 95-97, 101
MoMA. See Museum of Modern Art
Mona Lisa (Duchamp), 69
Mona Lisa (Starns), 206
Monogram (Rauschenberg), 43
Monuments of Passaic, The (Smithson),
48, 49
Moore, Peter, 86-87
Moral Majority, 229
Morell, Abelardo, 101,250,251
Morimura, Yasumasa, 244
Morphologies and Anonymous Sculptures,
62
Morris, Robert, 45, 76, 93, 160
Muniz, Vik, 247-48, 247, 262
museumization, 152,194,222
Museum of Modern Art, 19; Antin, 74;
Arbus, 146; Avedon, 21 s; Big Pictures by
Contemporary Photographers, 141-42,
201; California Photography: Remaking
Make-Believe, 64; The Family of Man, 6;
Information, so, 54, 61, 73; LeWitt, 58;
New Documents, 86; Newhall. 4, 19;
Penn, 217; photography, 191; photojournalism,
212; Piper, 73; Postmodernism,
218; Projects, 138; Robert Adams,
109; video, 137-39
Museum Pictures (Struth), 238, 254
Muybridge, Eadweard, 57-59, 267n11;
Artforum, 62; Arts Magazine, 59;
Baldessari, 105; Conceptual Art, 8;
Graham, 59-60; Human and Animal
Locomotion, 59; Le Witt, 57-59, 267n16;
photography and art world, 146; Pippin,
250
Mythic Being (Piper), 73

N

Naef, Weston, 204, 215
National Endowment for the Arts, 3;
culture wars,2 25,2 29,2 36,2 77n14;
Doherty, 113; Light Gallery, 91;
museum photo programs, 91, 182;
obscenity trial. 230; photography,
84-85
National Geographic, 1, 256, 278n12
Nature Morte, 175, 219, 220
Nauman, Bruce, 104, 122, 122, 131,
133-35, 134, 271n10
Neo-Expressionists, 174-76, 204, 208,
240,252, 275n17
Neo-Geo movement, 204-5, 208
Neon Templates of the Left Half of My
Body Taken at Ten-Inch Intervals (Nauman),
133
Neue Sachlichkeit, 61, 94, 262
New and Used Car Salesman (Wegman),
135, 135
New Co/or Photography, The (Eauclaire),
121, 203
282 Index
New Documents (Szarkowski), 86, 104,
115, 262
Newhall. Beaumont, 4, 14, 19, 21, 83,113
New Industrial Parks near Irvine, California,
The (Baltz), 93, 109-10, 110
New Painting of Common Objects, 19, 54
New Realists, 16, 19
Newton, Helmut, 217-18
New Topographies, 62, 103, 108-12, 204,
252, 269-7on4
New West, The (Robert Adams), 109
New York City (Friedlander), 20
Nicaragua (Meiselas), 179, 210, 223
Nine Swimming Pools and a Broken Glass
(Ruscha), 19
98 Greene Street Loft, 27-31, 34, 92, 148
Nixon, Nicholas, 109,110,121
“Note on Bernhard and Hilla Becher, A”
(Andre), 62, 267n19
Nothing Personal (Avedon/Baldwin), 215
No. 160, Division with Irregular Squares in
Magenta and Orange (Haxton), 201

O

Objects of Desire (Charlesworth), 171-72,
171
obscenity trial, 227, 229, 234, 276n2,
276n3
October, n; Benglis, n; Crimp, 17, 162,
169; critics, 153; Krauss, 150; Levine,
169; Neo-Expressionists, 174; “Pictures,”
162; Postmodernism, 145,172,
208; Sekula, 154; “Television/Society/
Art.” 139; theory, 149, 150
October 18, 1977 (Richter), 253
Office Baroque (Matta-Clark), 32-33
Ohio at Givemy (Lucier), 139-40, 140-41
One and Three Chairs (Kosuth), 54
100 Boots (Antin), 74-75
112 Greene Street, 25, 28-30, 78,151,
266n1 (chap. 2)
Ono, Yoko, 68, 87
On Photography (Sontag), 146-48, 192,
271 n4 (chap. 9)
On the Art of Fixing a Shadow: One Hundred
and Fifty Years of Photography.
235-36
On the Line: The New Co/or Photojournalism,
224
Open House (Matta-Clark), 30
Openings (Acconci), 73
Oppenheim, Dennis, 28, 41, 45-47, 47,
49,94
Orr-Cahall, Christina, 230
Our Bodies Our Selves, 71
Outburst (Wall), 208
Owens, Craig, 153, 174

P

Paik, Nam June, 127, 129-30, 129, 159
Painted Word, The (Wolfe), 195, 274n4
(chap. 12)
Painting, Photography, Film
(Moholy-Nagy), 95
Paradise Regained (Michals), 88
Penn, Irving, 214, 216-17, 216
Peress, Gilles, 224
“performalist self-portraits,” 75
Performance Art, 8, 27, 69, 73, 133, 189,
262,264
Perpetual Photo (McCollum), 219
Pfahl.John, 9,195, 196
Phillips 66, Flagstaff, Arizona (Ruscha), 18
photo-based art, 63,164, 175-76
Photo Bus Show, 251
photoconceptualism, 56
Photo Fry (Matta-Clark), 29
photograms, 1 s, 97, 248-52
Photographer’s Eye, The (Szarkowski), 4,
21, 213
Photographers and Friends United
Against AIDS, 241
Photographic Notes, 4
Photography of Invention: American
Pictures of the 1980s, The, 203-4
Photography Until Now (Szarkowski), 239
“Photography: Where We Are,” 151, 153
Photography Year, 83-84
PhotoGrids (LeWitt), 58
photojournalism, 84,112,191,212,218,
223-24
Photorealism, 120
Photo-Secession, 5
Photo-Transformation (Samaras), 118,
119
Pick Up Your Feet: The Double Dutch Show
(Blumberg), 127
Pictorialism, s, 217
Picture magazine, 196
“Pictures” (Crimp essay), 162
Pictures (show), 17,161,162,191,195,
272-73n7
Pictures: Photographs, 165
Pictures Generation: Baldessari, 64;
Charlesworth, 170; critical theory, 170,
273n19; In Plato’s Cave, 172; Marlborough,
172; Metro Pictures, 170;
reception of, 168,175,191; Simmons,
193-94; Solomon-Godeau, 172; tableau,
193-94, 203; Winer, 161. See also
Pictures (show)
Pictus lnterruptus (Metzker), 95
pinhole, 248,251,252
Piper, Adrian, 73-74, 74, 163, 189
Pippin, Steven, 248, 250
Piss Christ (Serrano), 226, 230
Play of Selves, A (Sherman), 160
pluralism, 83, 240
Polaroid, 258, 27on21; Abramovic and
Ulay, 165; Carey, 251; Heinecken, 98;
Polaroid Bit Shot, 119; Polaroid SX-70,
63, 84, 118-19; Polaroid 2ox24 Studio,
119,245,251; Projects (show), 138;
Samaras, 118-19; Simpson, 245;
Wegman, 119-20
Poll (Haacke), 51
Pollock,J ackson,2 ,6 9-70
Pop Art, 16, 19, 54, 93, 262
Popular Photography, 83, 146
Porch, Provincetown, Massachusetts
(Meyerowitz), 117
pornography, 224-25, 228-29, 232-35,
277n,4
Portapak system, 130, 133
Portriit (P. Stodtbiiumer) (Ruff), 253
Portraying a White God (Le), 244
Postconceptual Art, 119,156, 176-77
Postminimalism, 73, 76, 93, 133
Postmodernism: “As It Must to All, Death
Comes to Post-Modernism” (Grundberg),
208; Crimp, 162; East Village, 176;
end of, 240, 243; The Extended Document,
104; identity art, 247; Koons, 205;
Levinthal, 192; Mandel, 192, 194; Mapplethorpe,
233; Neo-Expressionism, 175;
New York Times, 179-80; 90s, 207-8;
October, 77; photography, 143, 176,
195; Pictures artists, 64, 203; Pictures
show, 191; political system, 172;
pornography, 224-25; reception of,
172, 273n17; Sherman, 156-57, 181;
silk-screen painting, 17; Sontag, 192;
Starns, 206-7; Sultan, 192, 194; theory,
151; Trudeau, 192; Weems, 245;
Woodman, 188
Poststructuralism, 153, 271-72n9
“Post-Studio Art,” 64, 159
Presidents (Levine), 166
Prince, Richard, 9, 166-68, 168, 172, 174,
182, 194, 219
Projects: 100 Boots by Eleanor An tin,
74-75
PS1, 150,168,174,211

R

Radioactive Cats (Skoglund), 200
Rape (Mendieta), 80
Rape Scene (Mendieta), 80
Rauschenberg, Robert, 13-16, 14, 15, 17,
43,63,94, 201-2
Reading Position for Second Degree Bum
(Oppenheim), 47
Real Big Picture, The, 201-3
Red Rock State Ca mpg round, Gallup New
Mexico (Sternfeld), 205
Re:Figuration, 164
Reimagining American Theatre (Brustein),
227
Rei ring, Janelle, 162-64, 183
Resnick, Marcia, 104, 106
Return of the Real, The (Foster), 240
Revenge of the Goldfish (Skoglund), 190,
199-201
Rhein II (Gursky), 263
Richter, Gerhard, 252-53
Rise and Monty Kissing, NYC (Goldin), 178
Robbins, David, 176,218, 219-20
Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect
Moment, 227, 229-30
Rochester, 114,257. See also George
Eastman House; Visual Studies
Workshop
Room for St.John of the Cross (Viola),
140, 141
Rope Bridge (Matta-Clark), 28, 28
Rosier, Martha, 139, 146,153,229
Ruff, Thomas, 252-ss, 253, 262
Ruhr Valley (Gursky), 255, 255, 263
Ruscha, Edward, 17-19, 18, 43,195,202,
26sns (chap. 1), 268n5 (chap. s)
Russell,John, 126,139,155


S-Z

S

Salle, David, 64, 159, 161-62, 174, 176
Samaras, Lucas, 118-19, 118,146,203,
239
Sand Creatures (Metzker), 95
Sander, August, 61, 94, 146, 262
Sand in der Vaseline (Sand in the Vaseline)
(Kippenberger), 260
Sandler, Irving, 6, 10, 53, 133, 161
San Francisco, California (Chi), 244
Satiric Dancer (Kertesz), 91
Schematic Drawings for Muybridge II,
1964 (LeWitt), 59
Schnabel, Julian, 174, 176, 204, 208
Schneemann, Carolee, 69-71, 10, 189
Scully,Julia, 83, 103, 121, 275n2
Seedbed (Acconci), 68, 94, 133
Sekula, Allan, 75, 139, 153-55, 222
Selavy, Rrose, 69
Sel f -Deceit #4, Rome, Italy (Woodman),
187
Sel f -Portrait (Mapplethorpe), 228
Sel f -Portrait as a Fountain (Nauman),
122, 122
Semiotext(e), 150, 272n10
semiotics, 148-50
Sense of an Ending, The (Barnes), 1
Sentences on Conceptual Art (Le Witt),
135
Serial Project, 1 (ABCD) (LeWitt), 58
Serra, Richard, 131-32
Serrano, Andres, 226,227, 230, 234-36
Sex Series (Wojnarowicz), 231, 231
Shapolsky et al. Manhattan Real Estate
Holdings, a Real-Time Social System, as
of May 1, 1971 (Haacke), 41-43, 42, 54
Sharp, Willoughby, 44-45, 79
Sheridan, Sonia Landy, 100, 101
Sherman, Cindy, 9-10, 184,185,188;
Akron Art Museum, 183, 185; Art and
Advertising: Commercial Photography
by Artists, 220; Artists Space, 156; Buffalo,
160; centerfolds, 180-81; Crimp,
162; critical theory, 273n19; Four Artists,
163; Galassi, 239; Image Scavengers,
174; In Plato’s Cave, 172; Levinthal and
Trudeau, 193; Masking and Unmasking:
Aspects of Post-Modernist Photography,
182; Metro Bus Show, 160; Metro
Pictures, 168, 172, 179-80; On the Art
of Fixing a Shadow, 235-36; Photo Bus
Show, 251; Photography Until Now,
239; Picture, 196; A Play of Selves, 160;
prices, 263; Re:Figuration, 164; The
Real Big Picture, 202; Schneemann,
71; Talent (Robbins), 219; Untitled #85
to Untitled #96, 180; Untitled #96, 181;
Untitled Film Stills, 163-64, 181, 188;
Untitled Film Still #7, 158; Whitney
Biennial, 172; Woodman, 188
Shields, Brooke, 167
Shoot (Burden), 68, 69
Shore, Stephen, 27, 89, 108, 110-11, 111,
121,203,262
Silueta (Mendieta), 66, 80
Simmons, Laurie: Art and Advertising:
Commercial Photography by Artists,
220; Brooks, 193-94, 197; Cibachrome,
34; Image Scavengers, 174; In Plato’s
Cave, 172; Klein, 164; Marlborough
Gallery, 172; Masking and Unmasking:
Aspects of Post-Modernist Photography,
182; Metro Pictures, 164, 168; The Real
Big Picture, 202; Re:Figuration, 164;
Whitney Biennial, 172; Woman with
Red Chair, 165
Simon, Joan, 27, 29,103,241
Simpson, Lorna, 244-45, 245
Simulations (Baudrillard), 1 so
Singing Sculpture (Gilbert and George),
94
Sischy, Ingrid, 180, 208
Siskind,A aron,1 4-15,9 1,9 5,9 6,9 8,118
Skoglund, Sandy, 9; Cibachrome, 34;
Cross-References: Sculpture into
Photography, 203; Likely Stories, 1 56;
On the Art of Fixing a Shadow, 235;
Pictures: Photographs, 166; Revenge
of the Goldfish, 190, 199-201; Whitney
Biennial, 199-201
Smith, Patti, 10, 36-37, 37
Smith, Philip, 61, 272n7, 273n8, 273n9
Smithson, Robert, 41, 45, 47-50, 48,
49, 79
Snyder,Joel, 151-52, 153
Society for Photographic Education
(SPE), 21, 155, 272n19
Society of the Spectacle (Debord), 149
Soho, 7,25-26, 67-68, 78,92-94, 160,
175, 176, 205, 241
Solomon, Holly, 27, 30, 35, 92, 134-35,
182,202
Solomon-Godeau, Abigail, 153, 172, 186,
188-89
Some Los Angeles Apartments (Ruscha),
19
Somnambulist, The (Gibson), 82, 88
Sonnabend, Ileana, 13, 25, 63, 92-94,
132, 204, 267n21
Sontag, Susan, 2, 144; Against Interpretation,
146; “image-world,” 9; On Photography,
146-48; “Photography: Where
We Are,” 151-53, 153; photography
and Surrealism, 271 n4 (chap. 9); Styles
of Radical Will, 146; Writing Degree
Zero, 148
S.O.S. Starification Object Series (Wilke),
75-76, 75
Southeast Comer, Semicoa, 333
McCormick, Costa Mesa (Baltz), 110
Southern California, 104,107,157
spectacle, 149
Spelling Lesson (Wegman), 135
Spira/Jetty (Smithson), 47-50, 48
Spiritual America: Gross, 167; Prince, 167;
Stieglitz, 167
Splitting (Matta-Clark), 24, 30-31, 33
Stamping in the Studio (Nauman),
133-34, 134
Starn, Doug and Mike, 205-7, 207, 242,
248
Stars (Ruff), 254
Steerage, The (Stieglitz), 154
Steichen, Edward, s, 6, 20
Steinmetz, Phil, 75
Sternfeld,Joel, 179,187,204,205
Stieglitz, Alfred, 5; cloud photographs,
169; Equivalent, 152; Fountain, 53,
54, 266m (chap. 4), 266n2 (chap. 4);
Kramer, 194; Photography Year, 84;
Spiritual America, 167; The Steerage,
154
Stiffs (Charlesworth), 171-72
Stockholm Uosephson), 96, 97
Store, The (Oldenburg), 45
Strobe Series/Futurist: Trying To Get A
Straight Line With A Finger (Baldessari),
64,105
Struth, Thomas, 238, 252, 254, 262
Studio International, 146
Styles of Radical Wi/1 (Sontag), 146
Subdivision with Spotlight (Casebere),
166
Sugimoto, Hiroshi, 63, 94
Sultan, Larry, 192-95, 193
Sunday New York Times (Barney), 142,
142
Surrealism, 6, 69, 88, 147, 194, 271n4
(chap. 9)
Susan Sontag (Hujar), 144
Szarkowski,J ohn, 20-21; Avedon,2 1s ;
color photography, 111; “A Different
Kind of Art,” 22, 191; Eggleston, 111,
115-17; fashion, 218; Haas, 27on19;
Looking at Photographs, 145; New
Documents, 104,262; Penn, 217; The
Photographer’s Eye, 4, 213; photography,
4, 22-23, 145,277n1;Photography
Until Now, 239; photojournalism, 212,
218

T

tableau photography, 193, 195-96,
199-203, 209,245
Talent (Robbins), 218,219
Tate Modern, 261-62, 278n2
Teaching a Plant the Alphabet (Baldessari),
135
Technology/Transformation: Wonder
Woman (Birnbaum), 138-39,  138, 143
Television Delivers People (Serra), 131
“Television/Society/Art,” 139
Telex Iran: In the Name of Revolution
(Peress), 224
This Is Not a Photograph: Twenty Years of
Lorge-Scale Photography, 1966-1986,
203
303 Gallery, 175, 200, 255
Three Transitions (Campus), 124, 131-32
Throwing Four Balls in the Air to Get a
Square Best of 36 Tries,
105
Tide (Dibbets), so, 50
Tilted Arc (Serra), 131
Tom, Tom, the Piper’s Son Uacobs), 130
Trademarks (Acconci), 73
Tribeca, 25,160,161, 175
Trivia (Barrow), 98
Trudeau, Garry, 192-94
True Artist Helps the World by Revealing
Mystic Truths, The (Nauman), 133
T. R. Uthco, The Eternal Frame, 137
Turbeville, Deborah, 86, 217
TV Buddha (Paik), 130
284 Index
Twenty Photographic Pictures by David
Hackney (Hackney), 117-18
Twentysix Gasoline Stations (Ruscha),
18-19, 18, 43, 268ns (chap. 5)
200 Campbell Soup Cans (Warhol), 16
Two Views of One Mishap of Minor
Consequence (Cumming), 107, 107

U

Uelsmann, Jerry, 85, 88-89, 89, 196
Ulay (Frank Uwe Laysiepen), 165
Uncommon Places (Shore), 89, 111
Untitled (cowboy) (Prince), 219
Untitled (Cowin), 198
Untitled Doctor and Nurse, 197
Untitled (Eggleston), 114
Untitled (Fuss), 249
Untitled (Gibson), 82
Untitled (Groover), 102
Untitled (Hats) (Brauntuch), 163
Untitled (Larson), 99
Untitled (Levinthal), 192
Untitled (Mendieta), 66
Untitled (President Co/loge: 4) (Levine),
167
Untitled (three men looking in the same
direction) (Prince), 168
Untitled (Wojnarowicz), 231
Untitled (Woman and Daughter with
Makeup) (Weems), 246
Untitled (You Are Not Yourself) (Kruger),
173
Untitled Film Stiff #7 (Sherman), 158
Untitled Film Stiffs (Sherman), 163, 164,
181,188,239, 273n,9
Untitled #96 (Sherman), 180-81, 181
Ut, Nick, 223
uptown, 27, 92-93, 240

V

Vandalism (Divola), 197
Variable Piece #70 (Huebler), 55-56, 55
Vertical Roff Uonas), 132, 132
Video: A Retrospective, 139
Video Art: A History, 139
Videofreex, 131
Vietnam Mission Council, 215
Viola, Bill, 127, 140, 141
Violi, Paul, 36
Visual Studies Workshop, 23, 112-14,
137,145, 183, 198

W

Wagstaff, Sam, 151,233,241
Wall, Jeff, 56, 208, 209, 262
Waifs Paper, 29, 29
Warhead I (Burson), 256-57
Warhol, Andy, 16-17; Ambulance
Disaster, 12; Avedon, 21 s; Graham, 59;
Polaroid, 119; Rauschenberg, 13; The
Real Big Picture, 202; Ruscha, 19; 200
Campbe/1 Soup Cans, 16
Watermelon/Bread (Cumming), 107
Water Towers (Bechers), 61, 61
Wavelength (Snow), 130
Webb,Boyd,63,94, 202,203
Weber, Bruce, 217, 242
Weegee (Arthur Fellig), 214
Weems, Carrie Mae, 10, 245-47, 246,
278n8
Wegman, William: Art and Advertising:
Commercial Photography by Artists,
220; Big Pictures by Contemporary
Photographers, 201; Blondes/Brunettes,
105-6, 106; Castelli, 93; Coleman, 195;
Dog Biscuit in Glass Jar, 135; Dog Duet,
135; Elephant, 120; The Extended Document,
104-5; Foffy, Suicy, Man Ray, 105;
New and Used Car Salesman, 135, 135;
Photography Until Now, 239; Polaroid,
119; Sesame Street, 119; Solomon, 27,
35, 94; Speffing Lesson, 135; What Is On,
35; Winer, 161
Weil, Brian, 156, 202
Weil, Susan, 15, 15
Weinberg, Adam, 113,224
Welling,James, 64,159, 168-69, 172,182
wet-plate collodion, 250-51
What Is On (Wegman), 35
“What’s All This About Photography?”
(Hennessy), 174-75
White, Minor, 83, 88
Whitney Biennial, 275n1 o; Charlesworth,
172; Divola, 198; Lucier, 139-40; photography,
199; Postmodernists, 172;
Robert Adams, 198-99; Skoglund, 199;
Starns, 206; video, 127-28, 137-39;
Viola, 140; Weems, 246
Wildman, Donald, 229-30, 276n4
(chap. 14)
Wilke, Hannah, 71, 75-76, 75, 189
Wi//iam Eggleston’s Guide (Eggleston),
115
Winer, Helene, 161-64, 175,183,241
Wingate, Ea Ian, 63, 93-94, 269n17
Winogrand, Garry, 21, 86, 89,104,115,
262
Winokur, Neil, 34, 112, 220, 221
Wisconsin Death Trip (Lesy), 114, 213
Witkin Gallery, 3, 84, 87-89, 268-69n8
Witnesses: Against Our Vanishing, 231
Wojnarowicz, David, 231, 231
Walmer, Bruce, 148-49
Woman with Red Chair (Simmons), 165
Woodman, Francesca, 71, 184, 186-89,
187
Words (Kaprow), 45
Writing and Difference (Derrida), 149
Writing Degree Zero (Barthes), 148, 252
Wrong (Baldessari), 63

XYZ

X Portfolio (Mapplethorpe), 232-33
You’re Fine (Simpson), 245, 245
Zen for TV (Paik), 129
Zuma (Divola), 197-99, 199