Gernsheim, Helmut

Creative photography: aesthetic trends 1839-1960

Gernsheim, H (1962) Creative photography: aesthetic trends 1939-1960. London: Faber & Faber.


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Contents

INTRODUCTION page I I

I THE MIRROR OF NATURE 23

II THE PENCIL OF NATURE 32

III TOPOGRAPHY AND INTERPRETATION 40

IV A NEW INDUSTRY 56

V IMMORTAL PORTRAITS 60

VI THE PHOTOGRAPHER AS STAGE MANAGER 69

VII ‘FINE ART’ PHOTOGRAPHY 73

VIII GENRE 89

IX THE NUDE BEFORE THE CAMERA 96

X REPORTAGE AND DOCUMENTATION I02

XI PUSH-BUTTON PHOTOGRAPHY II5

XII NATURALISTIC PHOTOGRAPHY II9

XIII IMPRESSIONISTIC PHOTOGRAPHY 122

XIV IMITATION PAINTINGS 131

XV THE AESTHETIC MOVEMENT 135

XVI THE BEGINNING OF MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY 149

XVII PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE RETORT 161

XVIII THE NEW OBJECTIVITY 172

XIX THE INFLUENCE OF SURREALISM 190

XX PHOTO-PATTERNS 196

XXI THE FACE OF OUR TIME 208

SHORT BIOGRAPHIES OF PHOTOGRAPHERS ILLUSTRATED 231

PROCESSES 248

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND STUDY LIST 251

INDEX OF NAMES 255


Index A-C

A

Abstract photographs, 163, 164, 168, 196, 207

Academie des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 25, 34

Academie des Sciences, Paris, 25

Adam-Salomon, A. S., 19, 64, 66, 126

Adams, Ansel, 182, 231

Adamson, Robert, 34, 36, 38, 68, 138, 231, 238

Aguado, Count 0., 19

Albert, Prince Consort, 73, 74, 77

Albumen prints, 248

Albumen process, 248

Ambrotypes, 57, 248

Anderson, James, 19, 44, 231

Anderson, Paul L., 142n, 145n, 247

Annan, James Craig, 38, 136, 145, 147, 231, 238

Annan, Thomas, 64, 108, 231

Anthony, Edward, 30, rn8, 231, 232

Arago, Frarn;ois, 24n, 25, 30, 232, 235

Archer, Frederick Scott, 43, 73, 246, 248, 249

Arts Council of Great Britain, 22

Atget, Eugene, 19, 154, 158, 160, 232, 233, 234

Auerbach, Erich, 232

B

Babbitt, Platt D., 30, 232

Backgrounds, painted, 28, 70, 71, 72, 194

Baldus, Edouard, 19, 41, 44, 232

Barbizon School, 119

Bardi, Luigi, 50

Barnett, H. Walter, 147, 232

Barrett, Elizabeth, 28

Barton, G. A., 133

Bassano, Alexander, 72

Baudelaire, Charles, 52, 52n, 64

Bauhaus,165,167,168,182,196,242

Bayard, Hippolyte, 12, 19, 31, 34, 47, 232

Bayer, Herbert, 165, 168

Beard, Richard, 26, 232, 249

Beardsley, Aubrey, 236

Beato, A., 244

Beaton, Cecil, 190, 192, 224, 233

Bedford, Francis, 44

Belloc, Marie A., 84

Bennett, Charles,. 250

Bergheim, J. S., 126

Bertall, 64

Biermann, Aenne, 178

Biow, Hermann, 29, 246

Bischof, Werner, 108, 224, 227, 233

Bisson, Auguste and Louis, 30, 44, 233

Blake, William, 172, 173

Blanquart-Evrard, L. D., 41, 248

Blossfeld, Karl, 177

Blount, Sir Edward, 195

Bocklin, Arnold, 132

Boissonnas, Fred, 133, 233

Boulanger, General, 112, 114

Bourgeois, A., 142

Bourke-White, Margaret, 212, 216, 221

Bourne, Samuel, 44

Bouton, Charles-Marie, 235

Bovier, L., 133

Brady, Mathew B., 29, 243

Brandt, Bill, IOI, 215, 216, 233, 243

Brassai, 213, 216, 233

Braun, Adolphe, 44, 92, rn8

Briand, Aristide, 2m, 245

Bromoil, 248

Bruguiere, Francis, 194

Browning, see Barrett, Elizabeth

Brunel, Isambard Kingdom, 60, 66

Bucquet, Maurice, 136, 147, 154, 158, 233, 234

Biihrer, Emil, 22

Burgess, John, 250

C

Caledon, Countess of, 19

Calotype (or Talbotype), 30, 32, 33, 34, 36, 38, 40, 73, 138, 231, 235, 238, 240, 245, 246, 248, 249, 251

Calotype Club, 237

Camera, miniature, 18, 102, 104, 209, 212, 213

Camera obscura, 11, 246, 250

‘Camera Work’, 142, 145, 149, 246

Cameron, Henry Herschel Hay, 136, 147, 234

255

Cameron, Julia Margaret, 19, 20n, 64, 66, 68, 82, 84, 120, 133, 234

Canaletto, 25

Capa, Robert, 212, 227

Carbon print, 249

Carjat, Etienne, 19, 64, 234

Carriere, Eugene, IOI, 120

Carroll, Lewis, 19, 76, 92, 94, 234

Carte-de-visite, 69, 79, 232, 233, 236, 240, 245, 248

Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 22, 82, 108, 204, 221, 224, 233, 234

Casazza, Gatti, 139

Casson, Winifred, 192, 194, 234

Cattermole, George, 76

Cecil, Hugh, 241

‘A Century of Photography’ exhibition, 20, 22, 237

Cercle d’ Art Photographique, Brussels, 142

Chalon, Alfred, 26, 28

Cherrill, N. K., 244

Chevreul, Michel-Eugene, 112

Chicago Art Institute, 20

Churchill, Sir Winston, 68

Clark, Sir Kenneth, 22

Claudet, Antoine, 28, 234, 235, 249

Clifford, Charles, 44, 235

Cloud negatives, 47, 50

Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 41, 142, 147, 148, 161, 163, 168, 235

Collen, Henry, 33, 34

Collodion process, 43, 73, 249

Constant, Benjamin, 96

Controlled printing processes, 249

Corot, Camille, 131

Courbet, Gustave, 15, 50, 96, 101, 119

Couture, Thomas, 77

Cox, Bertram, 177n

Cromer Collection, 20

Cundall, Joseph, 239

Cunningham, Imogen, 182


D-H

D

Dadaism, 145, 163, 164, 168, 243,

245

Daguerre, Louis Jacques Mantle, 12,

23, 32, 232, 234, 235, 242, 249

Daguerreotype, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28,

29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 63, 96, 231,

232, 234, 235, 238, 242, 246, 248,

249, 250

Dallas, E. W., 120n,

Dallmeyer, T. R., 120, 126

Dancer, John Benjamin, 102

Darwin, Charles, 68, 244

Daumier, Honore, 30, 36, 133

Dauthendey, Carl, 30

Davison, George, 120, 122, 123,

124, 126, 135, 136, 235

Day, F. Holland, 133, 235

Degas, Edgar, 17, 108, 126, 131

Delacroix, Eugene, 64, 96

Delamotte, Philip Henry, 19, 43,

44, 108, 235

Delaroche, Paul, 13, 24, 24n, 130,

237, 240, 242

Demachy, Robert, 126, 136, 235,

250

Deren Coke, Van, 207

‘Deutsche National Galerie’, 29

Dienes, Andre de, 101

Diorama, 235

Disderi, A. E., 69, 92, 235, 236

Dore, Gustave, 64, 86, 221

Draper, Edward, 92, 236

Du Camp, Maxime, 19, 41

Diihrkoop, Rudolf, 139

Durham, Joseph, 76n

Durieu, E., 89

Di.isseldorf Academy of Art, 81

Dutilleux, Constant, 89, 96

E

Eastlake, Sir Charles, 74

Eastman, George, I 16

Edgerton, Harold E., 171, 236

Edmiston, 194, 236

Edwards, J. M., 232

Edwards, J. P., 182

Eisenstaedt, Alfred, 212

Eisenstein, Sergei, 177

Elliott and Fry, 114

Emerson, Peter Henry, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 124, 126, 135, 235, 236

England, William, 44, 104, 236

Erfurth, Hugo, 139, 236

‘Ermanox’ camera, 104, 209, 209n, 241, 245

Ernst, Max, 164, 168

Eugene, Frank, 142

Evans, Frederick H., 136, 147, 236

Evans, Walker, 212, 216, 236, 237, 240

Exhibitions of photography, 15, 20, 22, 50, 52, 74, 77, 79, 82, 123, 126, 135, 136, 138, 139, r,p, 145, 147,163,167,182,185,237

F

‘Family of Man’ exhibition, 22, 245

Farm Security Administration, 216, 236, 240, 244

Feininger, Lyonel, 165

Fenton, Roger, 19, 41, 44, 79, 82, 92, 108, 237, 243, 244

Ferrier, C. M., 44

Film and Photo Exhibition, Stuttgart, 167, 182

Fizeau, Hippolyte, 249

Flacheron, Count F., 19, 41

Fontaine, 64

Forbes-White, J., 43

Ford, John, 216

‘Fotoform’, see ‘Subjective Photography’

Franck, 64

Frederick William IV of Prussia, 29

Frith, Francis, 43n, 44, 237

Frith, William Powell, 239

Fry, Peter W., 248

Fry, Roger, 22, 68

F.64 Group, 182, 231, 240, 247

G

Gale, Col. Joseph, 120, 136

‘Galerie Contemporaine’, 64

‘Gallery of Illustrious Americans’,2 9

Gardner, Alexander, 243

Gaudin, Marc-Antoine, 30

Gautier, Theophile, 19

Gelatine dry plates, 102, II5, 249

Gelatine emulsion, 250

Genthe, Arnold, II2, 237

George Eastman House, 20, 96

Gerber, Friedrich, 12

Germeshausen, Kenneth J., 171

Gernsheim Collection, 20, 237, 241

Gernsheim, Helmut, 182, 185, 237

Girault de Prangey, J. P., 19, 25, 31, 237, 238

Goddard, J. F., 232, 249

Graff, Philipp, 30

Graff, Werner, 177

Great Exhibition 1851, 29, 73, 232

Griffith, D. W., 177

Gropius, Walter, 165, 196n

Gros, Baron, 31

Grosso, Giacomo, 139

Grosz, George, 163

Gruber, L. Fritz, 22

Grundy, William M., 44, 92, 238

Guibert, Maurice, 180

Gum bichromate process, 250

Gurney, Jeremiah, 30

H

Hals, Frans, 71

Hamburg Kunsthalle, 136, 138, 139

Hammacher, Arno, 41, 238

Hammarskii:ild, Caroline, 238

Hammarskii:ild, Hans, 200, 238

Hanfstaengl, Erwin, 66

Hardy, Bert, 224, 238

Hartlaub, Gustav, 172

Havinden, John, IOI

Hawarden, Clementina, Viscountess, 19, 92, 238

Heartfield, John, 163, 168

Heise, Carl Georg, 172, 182

Heliography, II, 12, 235, 242, 250

Henneberg, Hugo, 136, 240, 247

Henneman, Nicholaas, 43

Renner, 96

Herschel, Sir John Frederick William, 12, 20n, 68

Hill, David Octavius, 19, 34, 36, 38, 41, 68, 138, 231, 238

Hiller, Lejaren a, 133

Hine, Lewis W., III, 238, 246

Hinton, A. Horsley, 120, 136, 239

Hobdell, Roy, 194

Hofmeister, Theodor and Oskar, 139, 239

Hollyer, Frederick, 136, 147

Hoppe, Emil Otto, 180, 239

Howlett, Robert, 60, 66, 239

Hughes, Alice, 147, 239

Hughes, Arthur, 84

Hughes, C. Jabez, 30

Hutton (Hubschmann), Kurt, 212, 221, 239


I-P

I

Impressionists, 20, 64

Ingres, Dominique, 28, 96, 101, 242

International Society of Pictorial Photographers, 145, 231

Isenring, J. B. 30

Israels, Josef, Sr

J

Jackson, William, 50

Johnston, J. Dudley, 185n

Juhl, Ernst W., 136, 139

K

Kandinsky, Wassily, 165

Kar, Ida, 16, II4, 247

Karsh, Yousuf, 68

Kasebier, Gertrude, 142

Keetman,P eter,1 98,2 00,2 39

Keighley, Alexander, 239

Keith, Thomas, 19, 41, 239, 240

Kennett, Richard, 250

Kilburn, W. E., 30

Klary, 64

Klee, Paul, 165

Kodak camera, II5, II6, 224

Kratochwila, Franz, 249

Kuhn, Heinrich, 126, 136, 240, 247

L

Lacroix, 240

Lamartine, A. de, 64, 64n

Lange, Dorothea, 221, 240

Langenheim,F rederick and William, 30

Laughlin, Clarence J., 240

Lawrence, M. M., 30

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, 26, 28, 57

Lazi, Adolf, 239

Le Begue, Rene, 136

Le Gray, Gustave, 19, 30, 40, 44, 47, 89, 233, 240, 243, 251

Leibl, Wilhelm, 132

‘Leica’ camera, 209, 212, 213n

Leighton, John, 74, 74n, 240

Lemaitre, A. F., 242, 250

Lenbach, Franz, 132

Lendvai-Dirksen, Erna, 178

Lerebours, N. P., 25, 30, 96

Lerski, Helmar, 178, 180, 240

Le Secq, Henri, 41, 44

Lichtwark, Alfred, 136, 138, 139

Linked Ring Brotherhood, 135, 136, 142, 147, 231, 235, 236, 239, 240, 245, 246, 247

Lissitzky, El, 168

Lithography, lithographs, 11, 12, 16, 20, 29,64, 145,238,241,242, 243

Liverpool Photographic Society, 237

Locherer, Alois, 43, 102, 240, 241

Lomazzo, Paolo, 71

London Camera Club, 163

London Salon, 185, 235, 244

London Stereoscopic Company, ro4

Lorant, Stefan, 210

Louvre, 22, 234

Luboshez, Nahum, II2, 240

M

Maddox, Richard Leach, 250

Man, Felix H., II4, 210, 212, 241

Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition,

77, 235

Manet, Edouard, 101, 108

Mann, Thomas, 176

Manzu, Giacomo, 15

Martens, Friedrich von, 30

Martin, Paul, 19, 154, 241

Marville, Charles, 41, 44

Maskell, Alfred, 135, 235

M1tter, Herbert, 168

Matthies-Masuren, Fritz, 136

Maull and Polyblank, 64, 241

Mayall, John Jabez Edwin, 30, 73,

73n

Mayhew, Henry, 154, 232

Meade Brothers, 30

Melandri, 66, 241

Metropolitan Museum, New York,

20, 22

Millais, Sir John Everett, 21, 79

Miller, Lee, 243

Miller, Wayne, 245

Millet, J. F., 64, II9

Mills, F. W., 154

Miniatures, 25, 28, 29, 57, 245

Misonne, Leonard, 142, 241

Mitford, Mary Russell, 28n

Moeschlin, Peter, 200, 241, 242

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo, 14, II7, 164,

165, 167, 167n, 168, 172, 177,

196n, 198, 242

Molard, Humbert de, Baron, 41

Monet, Claude, 64, ro8

Morris, Jane (Mrs William Morris),

86

Mortimer, Raymond, 216

Moulin, 98

Mudd, James, 242

Mulnier, 64

Murger, Henri, 98, IOI

Murray, Somerset, 194

Museum of the City of New York, 20

Museum of Modern Art, New York,

20, 234, 236, 245, 246

Muybridge, Eadweard, 44

McBean, Angus, 194, 195, 241

MacPherson, Robert, 19, 44, 241

N

Nadar (pseudonym for Gaspard Felix Tournachon), 19, 64, 112, 234, 242

Nadar, Paul, II2

Nakamura, Tateyuki, IOI

Napoleon III, 64, 69, 236

Nash, Paul, 224

National Photographic Record Association, r 12, 246

National Portrait Gallery, 22

Natterer, Johann and Josef, 30

Negre, Charles, 19, 41, 44, 89, 92, 242

New Objectivity (Neue Sachlichkeit), 41, Chapter XVIII, 244

New York Camera Club, 142

Newhall, Beaumont, 237

Newhall, Nancy, 231, 246

Newton, Sir William J., 74, 75, 119

Niepce, Joseph Nicephore, 11 12, 235, 242, 250

Niepce de Saint-Victor, Abel, 248

Northrop, W. B., II4

Noskowiak, Sonia, 182

Nothmann, E., 126, 242

Notman, William, 72, 242, 243

O

Oddner, George, 227, 229, 243

Oil-pigment, 250

Oscillation photographs, 198, 200

O’Sullivan, T. H., I08, 243

Outerbridge, Paul, 182

Owen, Hugh, 43

P

Pabst, G. W., 127

Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, 20

‘Pencil of Nature, The’, 33, 246

Perscheid, Nicola, 139

Petit, Pierre, 64

Photo-Club de Paris, 136, 158, 234, 235, 240

Photogenic Drawing, 248, 250

Photograms, 163, 164, 168

Photographic Society of London, see Royal Photographic Society, Photographic Society of Scotland, 78

Photographic vision, 16, 17

Photo-interview, 112, 114

Photo-montage, 76, 77, 78, 79, 8′.l, 81, 195

Photography, applications of, 12

Photography, exhibitions of, 15, 20, 22, 50, 52, 74, 77, 79, 82, 123, 257 126, 135, 136, 138, 139, 142, 14 – 147, 163, 167, 182, 185, 23

Photography, invention of, 11, 12, 23, 24, 25, 32, 34

Photography, museums of, 20, 29

Photography and painting, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 28, 50, 52, 70, 76, 77, 81, 108, 119, 120, 131, 132, 133, 142, 152, 168, 194, 207, 232, 239

Photography, usefulness to painters, 24, 28, 74, 96, 101, 224, 232, 239, 243

Photokina, Cologne, 22

Photo-Secession, 142, 145, 147, 149, 244, 245, 246, 247

Physionotrace, 25

Pichier, Paul, 132

Piot, Eugene, 41

Piper, C. Welborne, 248

Pissarro, Camille, 131

Platinotype, 251

Plumier, Victor, 30

Poitevin, Alphonse, 249, 250

Polak, Richard, 133, 243

Ponti, Carlo, 50, 243

Pound, Ezra, 163

Pre-Raphaelite School, 74, 79, 84, 86

Price, William Lake, 19, 76, 77, 79, 92, 243

Primoli, Count, 19

Princess Royal, see Victoria

Prinsep, May (later Lady Tennyson), 84

Prinsep, Val, 84

Pumphrey, William, 43

Puttemans, C., 142

Puyo, C., 133, 136


Q-Z

Q

R

Raphael, 76, 77

Ray, Man, 164, 165, 168, 198, 233, 234,243

‘Rayographs’, 164, 234

Rawlins, G. E. H., 250

Reade, Rev. Joseph Bancroft 12

Realism, 50, 52

Le Realisme, 50

Rejlander, Oscar Gustave, 19, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 92, 98, 133, 243, 244

Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 41, 160, 172, 176, 177, 185, 244

Renoir, Auguste, I08, 126, 131

Renoir, Jean, 234

Retouching photographs, 57, 58, 60, 89

Rey, Guido, 133, 139

Richebourg, 30

Riis, Jacob A., III, 221, 244

Rivera, Diego, 247

Robertson, James, 44, 244

Robinson, Henry Peach, 78, 79, 80, 81, II8, 135, 164, 244

Rochette, Raoul, 34

Roh, Franz, 167, 178

Roosevelt, Theodore, 111, 244

Roote, Marcus A., 30

Rose-Pulham, Peter, 194

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, 86

Rothstein, Arthur, 221, 244

Rouille-Ladeveze, A., 126, 250

Roux, Christine, 98, 101

Royal Engineers Military School, 244

Royal Photographic Society, 15, 74, 98, 117, 118, 119, 123, 135, 147, 176, 177, 185, 237, 244

Royal Scottish Academy, 34

Royal Society of Arts, 74

Rubincam, Harry C., 147, 149, 244

Ruskin, John, 21, 25, 25n

Russell, Lorenzo Henry, 56

S

Salomon, Erich, 209, 210, 245

Salon of 1859, 52

Salon of Linked Ring, 136

Sander, August, 178

Sardou, Victorien, 232

Sargent, John, 22, 126

Savage, W., 72

Sawyer, Lyddell, 120, 136, 245

Schad, Christian, 163, 164, 245

‘Schadographs’, 163, 164, 245

Schiaparelli, Cesare, 139

Schlemmer, Oskar, 165

Schulthess, Emil, 227

Schwarz, Heinrich, 176

Schwitters, Kurt, 164

Sedgfield, Russell, 44

Sella, Vittorio, 50

Senefelder, Aloys, II, 12

Seymour, David, 227

Shaw, George Bernard, 68, 76, 76n, 101, 116, 130, 147, 236

Sheeler, Charles, 182

Sickert, Walter, 17

Silhouettes, 25

Silvy, Camille, 19, 47, 70, 245

Smedley and Co., 71

Smith, Eugene, 224

Smith, John Shaw, 19, 41, 245

Societe Fran9aise de Photographie, 89, 96, 232, 233, 240, 242

Solarization, 165

Sougez, Emmanuel, 101

Spitzer, F., 136

Stanfield, Clarkson, 34

Steichen, Edward, 22, 101, 126, 132, 142, 145, 182, 245

Steinbeck, John, 216, 240

Steiner, Andre, 101

Steinert, Otto, 196, 198, 200, 245

Stelzner, C. F., 29, 245, 246

Stenbock-Fermor, Count, 212

Stenger Collection, 20

Stieglitz, Alfred, 101, 136, 142, 145, 147, 149, 168, 246

Stone, Sir Benjamin, 112, 246

Strand, Paul, 149, 152, 154, 160, 172, 180, 246

Strauss, J. C., 133

‘Subjective Photography’, 196, 198, 239, 245

Surrealism, 164, 168, Chapter XIX, 243

Sutcliffe, Frank M. 120, 136, 246

Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson, 114, 249

Swift, Henry 182

T

Talbot, William Henry Fox, 11, 12, 32, 33, 73, 163, 246, 248, 249, 250

Talbotype (see Calotype)

Telfer, William, 30, 246

Tennyson, Alfred Lord, 68, 79, 80, 86, 88, 234

Thierry, I., 30

Thomson, John, 108, 112, 154, 160, 246, 247

Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de, 17, 180

Tournachon, Gaspard Felix, see Nadar

Tschichold, Jan, 168

Turner, Benjamin Bracknell, 43

‘Typophoto’, 167, 168

Tzara, Tristan, 163, 164, 243

U

Utrillo, Maurice, 17, 232

V

Vaillat, 30

Valentine, James, 44

Vanderkindere, M., 142

Van Dyck, Willard, 182

Vaughan, Cardinal, 86

Vernet, Horace, 25

Victoria, Queen, 28, 70, 74, 77, 102, 108, 236, 244

Victoria, Princess Royal, later the Empress Frederick of Germany, 70, 139

Viennese Camera Club, 136, 247

Villeneuve, Vallou de, 89

Voll, Karl, 130n

‘Vortographs’, 163, 235

W

Wall, E. J., 248

Watts, George Frederick, 68, 82, 84, 86, 234

Watzek, Hans, 136, 240, 247

Wax portraits, 25

Waxed paper process, 40, 41, 251

Weber, Max, 161, 247

Weber, Wolfgang, 210, 212

Wedgwood, Josiah, II

Wedgwood, Thomas, 11

Weegee, 247

Weimer, Wilhelm, 139

Wellington, J. B. B., 120, 136

Weston, Brett, 182, 247

Weston, Edward, 101, 160, 182, 231, 247

Whistler, James, 21, 84

White, Clarence H., 101, 142, 147, 247

White, Henry, 19, 44, 247

Wilenski, R. H., 14, 15, 16, 188

Wilkinson, B. Gay, 120,124,136,247

Williams, T. R., 30

Willis, William, 251

Wilson, George Washington, 44

Winquist, Rolf, 200, 238, 247

Wolcott, Alexander, 26, 249

Wolff, Paul, 213

World Exhibition of Photography, Lucerne, 22

Wynfield, David Wilkie, 68

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