Bate, David

Photography, the key concepts
Davis Bate

Photography, the key concepts

Bate, David. (2016) Photography, the key concepts. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.


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Contents

Introduction
Genre 4
Approaches 7
Chapter Summary 9

Photography Theory 11

A Short History of Photography Theory 12
The Politics of Representation 16
Structuralist Theory 17
Semiotics-The Study of Signs 1 8
Photo Codes 21
Rhetoric 23
A “Language of Photography” 24
Points of View 25
Denotation – Visual Signifier 27
Connotation – Cultural Signified 28
Belief – Realism and Reality 30
Poststructuralism 31
Chapter Summary 33

Snapshots and Institutions 35

Analogue/Digital 36
Amateur and Domestic 37
Personal Photography 42
Avant-Garde 4 4
The Phrase-image 46
Snapshots of Life 48
Chapter Summary 51

Documentary and Storytelling 53

Origins 53
Editorial Control 56
The Auteur Photographer 57
Democratic Vision 58
How the Other Half Lives 61
Reportage 65
The Decisive Moment as Peripeteia 68
Staging Meanings 70
Eye (I) Witness 71
New Documentary 74
Tableau on the Street 75
Representation of Reality 76
Desire to Look 76
Chapter Summary 79

Seeing Portraits 81

The Industrial Portrait 82
Society Portraits 83
Bureaucratic Portraits 86
Elements of a Portrait 89
Faces 90
Pose 93
Clothes 94
Location 96
Props 97
Making Meanings 98
Recognition 99
Identification 102
Narcissism and Looking 102
Projection 103
Blank Expressions 104
Chapter Summary 107

The Composition of Landscapes 109

Histories of Landscape 110
Beautiful and Sublime 114
Contemporary Scapes 117
Animals 118
Photographic Vision 120
New Frontier and Colonial Spaces 122
Composure 126
The Politics of Aesthetics 128
Postmodern Aesthetics? 130
Panoramas 132
Post-Aesthetic Landscapes? 133
Chapter Summary 134

The Object of Still-Life 137

Commercial Photography 138
Advertising 138
New Objects 141
Critiques of Advertising 145
Advertising Agencies 147
Rhetorical Images 148
Product Shots 149
Techniques 151
The Art of Description 153
Still-life Sub-genres 154
Close-ups 155
Social Fantasy 156
Vanitas Objects 158
Chapter Summary 160

Photography and Art 153

Art 164
Autonomy 165
Mediums 167
Painting and Photography 168
Paradigms 170
Pictorialism/Modernism 170
Contemporary Art Photography 172
The Pictorial Paradigm 173
Conceptual Art 177
Street Photography 178
“Fine Art” Photography 180
Postmodernism 182
Global Art Industries 183
Chapter Summary 186

Global Photography 189

Globalizing Photography 191
The Flows of Photography 192
Photography and Trade 194
World Photography 197
Critique of Universalism 199
Local Readings 200
WWW Networks 202
Digital Photographs 203
Dissemination of the Image 205
Distraction 209
Chapter Summary 210

The Scopic Drive 213

The Photographer 215
Active/Passive: Voyeurism/Exhibitionism 216
Visual Pleasure 219
Apparatus Theory 221
Drive and Desire 222
Oral Eye Pleasure 223
Libidinal Looking 226
Ordinary Looking 227
Chapter Summary 228

History and Photography 231

Definitions 232
Historical Problems 234
Photographic Discourse 237
Photographs-Historical Objects 239
Photographic Knowledge 242
Polysemy-Plural Meanings 244

Questions for Essays and Class Discussion 249

Photography Theory 249
Snapshots and Institutions 249
Documentary 249
Portraits 250
Landscape 250
Still-life 250
Art 250
Globalism 251
Scopic Drive 251
History 251
Annotated Guide for Further Reading 253
Notes 257
Select Bibliography 273
Index 279


Index A-C

A

􀄮dams, Ansel 120-1, 121f.

advertising 23-4, 139, 139f., 140-1, 143-5, 146
agencies 147-8
antithesis 28
beauty and 144
close-ups 91-2
concealment 145-6
cross-fields 146
daydreaming 208
emotional factors 130
fantasy and 156-8
food and drink 149
knowledge and 148
“myths” 145
optimism and 148
pack-shot products 138-9, 149-53
realism and 30, 74, 99, 143-5
scope 138, 140, 146-7, 147f., 148-9
sexual factors 155, 216-17
threat and 157-8
undervalued 138

Albok, John 147f.

albums 41

Althusser, Louis 16

Alvarez Bravo, Manuel 226f.

American Photographs (Evans) 58

Americans, The (Frank) 73, 179

Anderson, Colin 209f.

Appadurai, Arjun 208

apparatus theory 221-2

Araki, Nobuyoshi 143

Arbus, Diane 162f.

Aristotle 23

Arnatt, Keith 172-3

Art 8, 65-7, 151, 162f., 169f.
automation and 13
beauty and 126, 127, 128, 130
challenges 121, 163-4, 168, 173, 175
complexity 177
contemporary 172, 173, 174t., 175, 181-2, 185-6
cross-fields 168
emotional factors 127-8, 129-30
focus 121
formalism 181
history of 6, 164, 165, 167, 168,170, 172, 174t., 186, 234-5
independence and 165-6
kitsch and 165
limitations 3
market 183-6
modernism and fine art 170, 172, 176-7, 180-2
postmodernism 182-3, 183f.
realism and 12-13, 120, 125, 168-70, 173-4
representation and 167
scope 163, 164-5, 166-8, 175-6,186
sexual factors 222-3
time factors 170, 172
see also individual genres and names

Art and Photography (Scharf) 83

Art of Rhetoric, The (Aristotle) 23

Art Since 1900 (Foster et al.) 8

Atget, Eugene 67, 230f.

auteurs 56-8, 67, 67f., 72-3, 96f.
nightlife and 57f., 58
representation and 68-9, 69f.
street life 66f.
time factors 68-70, 69f., 73

B

Bailey, Ron 47f.

Ball, James Presley 193

Baltz, Lewis 122f.

Barr, Alfred H., Jr. 169f.

Barthes, Roland 15, 18, 23-4, 95, 148-9, 199, 200-1
concealment and 240
cross-fields 17-18
knowledge and 241
“myths” 17, 145
punctum 85-6
realism and 241

Baudelaire, Charles 99-100, 100f.

Baudrillard, Jean 145

Bazin, Andre 24, 25

Beato, Felice 132f., 133, 196f.

beauty 121, 128
affinity and 92, 128
challenges 126
cross-fields 115
emotional factors and 130
idealization and 114, 115-16, 126, 144
pleasure and 115-16, 126-7
recognition and 127
threat and 118, 129, 129f., 130, 131, 133

Benjamin, Walter 14, 130
beauty and 126
realism 143-5
work and 63

Berger, John 14, 216-18

Berners-Lee, Tim 202

billboards 146-7, 147f.

blindness 214f.

Blossfeldt, Karl 152f.

Blow Up (Antonioni) 215f., 216

bodies
close-ups 142-3
pleasure and 116-17
self and others 103
sexual factors 77, 95, 102-3
threat and 116-17

Borel, Nicolas 184f.

Bourdieu, Pierre 15, 37-8

Bourne, Samuel 194-5

Brady, Mathew 61

Brandt, Bill 58

Brassai (Gyula Halasz) 57f., 57-8

Brown, (Lancelot) Capability 111-12

Burden of Representation, The (Tagg) 83

Burgin, Victor 15, 24, 159-60, 222

Burke, Edmund 114, 116, 130

C

Callis, Jo Ann 224f.

Calotypes 12, 240f.

Camera Lucida (Barthes) 18, 85-6

camera obscura 191,192

Cameron, Julia Margaret 105

carte-de-visite portraits 84-5, 85f.

Cartier-Bresson, Henri 69f., 72-3, 179
representation and 68-9
time factors 68-70, 73

Certeau, Michel de 48

Cezanne, Paul 155

children
child labor 62, 63f.
identity and 103
pleasure and 225
recognition and 103
self and others 103
sexual factors and 102-3, 217, 218-19
time factors and 159

cinema, see films

Citizen Kane (Welles) 159

Claesz, Pieter 154

Claude (Lorrain (Gellee)) 112-13

close-ups 91-2, 92f., 142, 220, 220f.
background and 155-6
beauty 92
cross-fields 142-3
long shots and 98
metonymy 91
pleasure 91
scale and 155

clothing 89, 90, 94-5, 137
identity and 94, 95, 96
sexual factors 95
stereotypes and 95-6

color 74-5, 153, 179, 243

conceptual art 15, 172, 177-8, 178f.

Constable, John 113

Cook, Mariana 214f.

crime, see police and crime

cropping 56

Cubism 137


D-H

D

Daguerre, L.-J.-M. 132

Daguerreotypes 192, 194-5
death 159f.
freedom and 193
realism 12

death 24, 30, 62f., 159, 159f., 216

decisive moment 68-70, 69f., 75

Demachy, Robert 170, 171f.

Derrida, Jacques 37

diaries 42

Dickens, Charles 54

digital imagery 7, 192, 202, 213
accessibility 36
apps 204
DSLR 204
immediacy 37
realism and 203
scene modes 1
scope 36-7, 37f., 40-1, 46, 204-5, 210
selfies 42-3, 49-50, 51,215
social interaction 49, 202f.
time factors 203-4
see also Internet

Digital Single Lens Reflex {DSLR) 204

Disderi, A.-A.-E. 84-5, 85f.

documentary 56-8, 65-7, 68, 78, 79
challenges 60-1
cross-fields 53, 75
emotional factors 64
history of 53-5, 61
knowledge and 59, 60
layout and 56, 58
realism and 59, 60, 61-2, 70-2, 74-5, 76-7, 78

representation and 59, 68-9
scope 55, 58-9, 64, 65, 67, 71, 73, 79, 175
self and others 60
social interaction 78-9
time factors 64, 68-70
work 60, 62-4, 63f.
see also rural life; urban life

domestic imagery 39f.
cross-fields 6
everyday life and 38, 41
pets 40
representation 38
scope 37-8, 40-1

dossiers 45

Drum 53

DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) 204

Duchamp, Marcel 166, 169f.

E

Eastman, George 35-6

Eco, Umberto 23

Eisenstein, Sergei 69, 91

Elements of Semiology {Barthes) 18

ethnicity 184f., 184-5
freedom and 193
identity and 128-9
migration 244
self and others 103, 128, 200

Evans, Walker 58, 66f , 67, 67f., 96f.

everyday life 16, 41, 46, 47
realism and 175
social interaction and 48-9
undervalued 38
work 48
see also documentary

exhibitionism 218
close ups 220
voyeurism and 216-18, 217f., 219-21, 222

eyes 212f., 226f.
beauty and 126-7
close-up 220f.
jealousy and 77-8
pleasure 223-4
self and others 227-8
sexual factors and 228

F

faces 89, 90
asymmetry 104
background and 89-90
close-ups and 91-2, 92f., 98, 220
“common” traits and 88
complexity 22
concealment and 80f., 93, 104, 105f.
cross-fields 2, 91
emoticons and 22-3
emotional factors and 88-9, 90-1, 93, 94
enigma 104
focus and 104-6
locations and 98-9
recognition and 88f., 94
stereotypes and 92
time factors 105-6
work 64

Factography 59

Factory 144

family 52f., 103, 208, 216, see also domestic imagery; humanism

Family of Man, The 197-201, 198f.

Farm Security Administration project
67, 67f., 76

fashion 96-7
close-ups 91-2
sexual factors 95, 216-17

Fenichel, Otto 223-5, 227

Fenton, Roger 111 f.

fetishism 158, 159-60

film (photographic) 36

films (cinema) 4-5, 13, 57, 58, 66, 69
apparatus theory 221-2
close-ups 91, 142
focus 22
horror 91
lighting 112
long shots and 98
news reels 55
posters 4-5
realism and 59, 168-9
representation and 59
romantic comedies 91
sexual factors and 215f., 216, 219-21
time factors 159

“Fire and Ice” (Wollen) 65-6

focus 22,121,181
distinctness and 104-6

folk tales 223-4

food and drink 140, 140f., 141f., 144f., 154-5
pack-shot products 149, 150f.
pleasure 224f., 225
sexual factors 225

Four Fundamentals of Psychoanalysis, The (Lacan) 219

Frank, Robert 73, 179

Freud, Sigmund
beauty and 127
dreaming 222
memory and 231, 232
pleasure and 100
sexual factors and 102-3, 158-9, 208, 217, 219, 226-7

Fried, Michael 174-5, 176-7

Friedlander, Lee 180f.

Frith, Francis 123-5, 124f.

Frosh, Paul 206

“fuzzography” 104-6

G

Gainsborough, Thomas 104, 106

Gaitan, Francis 88

Gannon, David 162f.

gardens 111-12

gazing 86, 224

genres 2-3, 4-5, 7, 9
cross-fields 5-6
history of 6
undervalued 4

Gerson, Lotte 171f.

Giles, Ed 124f., 125

Gilpin, Rev. William 114

globalization 189-90, 194-5, 197, 201, 205, 206-7, 210
accessibility and 184, 190
challenges 190-1, 201
concealment 145-6
distraction 209f.
freedom and 193-4
history of 55, 191-5, 193f., 194f., 196f., 197
identity and 207
networks 188f , 201-2
perspective 192
representation and 191, 195, 200, 201
self and others 206
see also digital imagery; humanism; tourism

Gombrich, Ernst 104, 106

Gourand, Franc;:ois 193

Greenberg, Clement 165

Grierson, John 67, 70-1

Guattari, Felix 110

Gursky, Andreas 130-2

H

Hall, Stuart 244

hands 91, 104

Heartfield, John 130, 185f.

Heidegger, Martin 137

Hering, Henry 132f., 133, 196f.

Hine, Lewis W 61, 62, 63f.

history 231, 232, 233, 236, 237, 238, 244, 246-7
antithesis and 245-6
challenges 3, 233-4, 238, 244
complexity 3, 232-4, 235-6
concealment and 239, 241
constraints 175
distraction 209
genius and 234
knowledge and 241, 243
lighting 243
limitations 234-5, 236-7, 244-5
of magazines 53-5
memory and 231-2, 246
metonymy 239, 241-2
migration 244
realism and 242
representation and 232, 238
social history 235-6, 244, 245-6
undervalued 237-8
see also individual genres; time factors

History of Photography, The (Newhall) 236-7

History of Women Photographers, A (Rosenblum) 234

history painting 68, 175

Hobsbawm, Eric 65, 245

horror 116-17

horror films 91

How the Other Half Lives (Riis) 61-2

humanism 59, 72-3, 197-201, 198f., 201f.
idealization 199
representation and 200-1

Hundred Years of Photography, A (Moholy) 142


I-P

I

Impressionism 13

Internet 2, 189, 205-6, 209
challenges 207-8
daydream browsing 208-9
distraction 209
feeds 42
freedom and 202
networks 202
self and others 49
sexual factors 208, 226-7
social interaction 48, 49, 78-9, 207

Iturbide, Graciela 108f.

J

Jacquart, Henri 193f.

Janis, Sidney 169f.

jeans 94-5

Jones, Calvert Richard 132

K

Kerouac, Jack 179

Kertesz, Andre 14 lf.

Keywords (R. Williams) 232

kitsch 165

Klutch, Brian 150f.

Kodak 35-6

Krull, Germaine 80f.

L

Lacan, Jacques 222
fantasy and 156-7
gazing and 86
jealousy and 77-8
metaphor 31-2
metonymy 31-2
self and others 103, 227-8
sexual factors and 219, 228

landscapes 108f., 111, 111f , 121f., 131, 133f., 134
antithesis 118
asymmetry 104
beauty and 114, 118, 121, 129,129f., 133
behavior 115f.
challenges 109, 133-4
cross-fields 110, 131-2, 133-4
emotional factors 119
environmental factors and 109, 110, 118
ethnicity 128-9
gardens and 111-12
history of 110-13, 122-5
idealization and 109, 112, 113
irony 112
knowledge and 109, 131
lighting 112
panoramas 131-3, 132f.
pleasure and 117
realism and 120, 121, 122f., 122-4, 124f., 125
scope 109-10, 113-14, 119-20, 124-5
seascapes 116, 117f.
threat and 116, 117, 118, 128, 134, 146
time factors 109, 128-9
tourism 110, 114-16, 124f , 125, 131
see also globalization; rural life; urban life

Lange, Dorothea 52f.

language 18-20, 32, 35
knowledge and 242-3
recognition and 21
representation and 20
see also individual genres; rhetoric

Leonardo da Vinci 104

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim 68

Lethbridge, Alexandra 136f.

Lewis, Justin 202f.

Lhote, Andre 69

Life 53, 60

lighting 23, 112, 243

locations 89, 90, 96f , 96-7
cross-fields 96-7
faces and 98-9
long shots and 98
see also landscapes

long shots 98

Lyotard, Jean-Franc;ois 168-70, 186

M

magazines 44-5, 55
history of 53-5
knowledge and 60
layout 56, 58
nightlife 57f.
pack-shot products 139
sexual factors 218

Manners, Samuel 139f.

Mapplethorpe, Robert 155, 156f.

Marx, Karl 235-6

Mayhew, Henry 61

medical imagery 237-8

memory 231-2, 246

migration 52f., 86, 244

miniature portraits 82

mirrors 103, 224, 227-8

Mirror Stage as Formative of the I, The (Lacan) 219

mobile imagery, see digital imagery

Moholy, Lucia 142

MoMA (Museum of Modern Art) 236, 237

Montizon, Juan, Count de 26f., 30-1

mouths 223-4, 225

Mulvey, Laura 219-20

Musee du quai Branly 184f.

Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) 236, 237

Mythologies (Barthes) 17, 145, 199

N

Nadar (Gaspard-Felix Tournachon) 83, 84f., 98f., 100f.

Naked City (Weegee) 58

nature 19, 21f., 230f.
affinity and 118-19
antithesis 26f., 27-9
blindness 214f.
emotional factors 118-19
environmental factors 110
irony 26f., 29
metaphor 26f., 28-9
pets 40
realism and 12, 26f., 30-1
sexual factors 156f.
sheen 152f.
wildness 118, 119f.
see also landscapes

Newhall, Beaumont 236-7

New Objectivity 142, 143
beauty and 144
close-ups 142
concealment and 105f.
realism and 143-5
representation and 143
work 62-4, 141-2, 143

news reels 55

Newton, Helmut 222

New Topographics 122

Night in London, A (Brandt) 58

nightlife 57f., 57-8

Nochlin, Linda 234

O

One Hour Photo (Romanek) 216

Opie, Catherine 133f.

Origin of the Work of Art, The (Heidegger) 137

P

pack-shot products 138-9, 149-51, 153
antithesis 151-3
background and 149, 150f., 151-3
color and 153
limitations 150
sheen 151 , 153
threat and 151-3

Page, Homer 198f.

paparazzi 7, 94

Paris by Night (Brassai) 57f., 57-8

passport photos 89-90, 94

Paths of Modern Photography, The (Rodchenko) 44

patronage 165

Peeping Tom (Powell) 216

Pencil of Nature, The (Talbot) 240f.
concealment and 239, 241
knowledge and 242-3
lighting 243
metonymy 239, 241-2
realism and 12, 242

peripeteia 68-70, 69f., 75

personal imagery 41, 43, 46-7, 47f., 48-9
challenges 50
memory and 246
self and others 42, 43, 49, 50
social interaction 49
structure of feeling 42
time factors 42
see also self-portraits

perspective 22, 44, 45f, 191, 192

pets 40

Phillips, Christopher 236

Philosophical Enquiry, A (Burke) 114

phones 45f , 190f., see also digital imagery

photography 1-2, 10f., 11-12, 33, 154, 214-15, 246
agencies 206
amateurs 35, 75-6, 78-9
avant-garde 13-14
cross-fields 239
idealization 16
knowledge and 241
mass media 6, 13, 14-15, 175
representation and 16-17

photojournalism 55, 58, 184
history of 61
layout 56
realism and 61-2
street life 75-6
work 62, 63f.

photomontage 185f.

phrase-images 46-7, 47f., 48-9

Picture Post 53, 57f.

police and crime 87f., 94, 237-8
affinity and 94
automation 7
“common” traits and 88
cross-fields 2
dossiers 45
realism and 203
recognition and 86-7, 88f.
self and others 60

Ponting, Herbert G. 21f.

portraits 81, 87f., 90f., 100f., 107
affinity and 102
archive records 87
challenges 106
clothing and 89, 90, 94-6
complexity 99
concealment and 101f.
cross-fields 81
familiarity and 100-1
foot strides 69-70
hands 91, 104
history of 81-2, 83, 193f., 194f.
identity and 81, 83, 86, 89, 101, 102, 106
knowledge and 100-1
locations and 89, 90, 96f., 96-7, 98-9
pleasure and 99, 100, 101-2, 103
poses and 89, 90, 93-4
posture 93, 94
props and 89, 90, 98f.
punctum 85-6
recognition and 83, 86–8, 89, 99, 100-2, 103, 106
representation and 100-1
scope 5, 81 , 82, 83, 103-4, 106
sexual factors 102-3
society 83-5, 84f., 85f.
studio 82-3, 92f., 92-3, 97
time factors 82
urban life 86
work 62-4
see also eyes; faces; self-portraits; snapshots

postcards 54

Postmodern Condition, The (Lyotard), 186

poststructuralism 17

psychoanalysis 8, 50, 158, 222-3, see also individual names

punctum 85-6


Q-Z

Q

R

Ranciere, Jacques 47, 186

Ray, Man (Emmanuel Radnitzky) 142-3, 157f.

Ray-Jones, Tony 115f.

realism and reality 20, 24, 30-1, 61-2, 62f., 143-5
annotation 124
challenges 12-13, 26f., 29-30, 76-7, 123, 125, 203
color and 74-5
complexity and 58, 125
concealment and 99, 241
constraint 186
fantasy and 221-2, 225
focus 181
knowledge and 61, 62, 63f., 122-3, 242
limitations and 104, 122, 122f, 242
mimesis and 12, 120, 168-70
pleasure 78, 124
representation and 62, 63f., 71, 76, 123-4
reversion and 121-2, 173-5
scale 124f., 125
scope 24-5, 54-5, 59, 71, 121, 153-4, 181
self and others 60, 62
staging and 70-1, 73
time factors and 75
viewpoints and 25-7, 26f., 31, 71-2
voyeurism 77

Rear Window (Hitchcock) 216

Rembrandt van Rijn 105-6

Renger-Patzsch, Albert 144f

reportage 64-5, 67, 67f., 68, 96f.
realism and 72
representation and 68-9
social interaction 78-9
street life 66f.
time factors 68-70
see also humanism

Reynolds, Joshua 104

rhetoric 23-4, 28, 148-9, 239-40
antithesis 26f , 27-9
concealment and 149, 240-1
irony 26f, 29
metaphor 26f , 28-9, 31-2
metonymy 31-2
see also individual genres and names

“Rhetoric of the Image” (Barthes) 23-4, 148-9, 240

Ricci, Marco 117, 117f.

Riis, Jacob A 61-2

Riviere, Joan 50

Rodchenko, Alexander 44, 45f.

romantic comedies 91

Rosa, Salvator 116

rural life 67, 67f., 76
idealization and 113
migration 52f.
time factors 129
tourism and 114-15
undervalued 112

S

Sander, August 67, 105f, 245f.
work and 62-4

“Sausages and Food” (Arnatt) 172-3

Saussure, Ferdinand de 18, 20

Scharf, Aaron 83

Schotofer, Howard 140f.

scopic drive 213, 225-6, 228
antithesis 224-5
complexity 214
cross-fields 227
pleasure and 213-14, 223-5, 228
undervalued 223
see also further terms

seascapes 116, 117f.

Segalove, Ilene 190f.

Sekula, Allan 176f

selfies 51,215

self and others 42, 43, 49-50

sexting 42-3, 49-50

self-portraits
faces 105-6
pleasure and 99-100
selfies 42-3, 49-50, 51,215

semiotics and codes 8, 17, 18-24, 21f., 33
focus 22
lighting 23
metaphor 31-2
metonymy 31-2
personal opinion and 7-8
perspective 22
realism and 20, 25-7, 26f., 31
social interaction 49
structuralism 17
see also individual genres and names

sexual factors 103, 155, 156f, 215-16, 218-19, 226-7
concealment and 95
daydreaming 208
fetishism 158, 159-60
identity and 219
limitations 222-3
metonymy 95
pleasure and 102-3, 158-9, 225, 226-7, 228
self and others 219
sexting 42-3, 49-50
voyeurism 77, 215f., 216-18, 217f, 219-21, 222

sfumato 104

Sherman, Cindy 183f.

Silk. George 200

snapshots 34f., 35, 51
accessibility 36
antithesis 44
automation 36
concealment 51f.
cross-fields 35
domestic 37-8, 39f., 40-1
dossiers 45
everyday life 46, 47-8
“files of snapshots” 44-6
history of 35-6
immediacy 37
realism and 74-5
representation and 37
scope 35-7, 37f., 38-40, 45, 46
time factors 44
viewpoints 44
see also personal imagery

sponsorship 183-4

Steichen, Edward 32f, 105, 121, 198f.

Steinert, Otto 64

Stieglitz, Alfred 180-1

still life 136f., 139, 139f , 140-1, 142, 143-5, 146, 160
agencies and 147-8
antithesis 154
background and 154
beauty and 144
close-ups 142-3, 155-6
clothing 137
concealment 145-6
cross-fields 146
death 159. 159f.
fantasy and 154-5, 156-8
knowledge and 148
“myths” 145
optimism and 148
pack-shot products 138-9, 149-53
realism and 143-5, 153-4
representation and 143
scope 137-8, 140, 143, 146-7, 147f., 148-9, 151, 154
sexual factors 155, 156f., 158-9
sheen 152f.
threat and 157-8
undervalued 137, 138
work 138, 141-2, 143
see also food and drink

stock imagery 206-7

Strand, Paul 181

street life 54, 55f., 62, 66f., 74f., 180f.
color 179
realism and 54-5
scope 75-6, 178-80

Street Life in London (Thomson and Smith) 54-5, 55f., 62

structuralism 17

Struth, Thomas 74f.

Sugimoto, Hiroshi 119f.

Surrealism 13

surveillance imagery 7, 60

System of Objects, The (Baudrillard) 145

T

Tagg, John 83, 237-8, 244

Talbot, W. H. F 132, see also Pencil of Nature

Tate galleries 172-3

television 49, 91, 148

Thinking Photography (Burgin) 15, 222

Thomson, John 54-5, 55f., 62, 194f.

Three Ecologies, The (Guattari) 110

time factors 42, 44, 64, 73, 170, 172
ageing 105-6
cross-fields 203
life cycle 112
limitations and 109, 203-4
peripeteia 68-70, 69f., 75
pleasure and 128-9, 159
speed 82, 171 f.
staging and 70
time-space 32f.

tourism 124f., 195
beauty and 114, 115-16
behavior 116
cross-fields 2, 110
history of 114-15
realism and 125
scope 114-15, 131

Tritschler, Alfred 217f.

Turner, J M. W. 113, 116

TV 49, 91 , 148

U

urban life 117-18
challenges 109
migration and 86
nightlife 57f., 57-8
threat and 117
tourism and 114-15
see also street life

V

Van Der Zee, James 90f.

van Gogh, Vincent 137

vanitas images 159, 159f.

viewpoints 22, 27, 44, 64, 71-2
angles 44, 45f.
immediacy and 25-7, 26f.
privileged 26f., 27, 31

“Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” (Mulvey) 219

voyeurism 77, 215f., 216, 218
close-ups 220
exhibitionism and 216-18, 217f., 219-21, 222

W

Wall, Jeff 75, 175

war 118, 195, 201f.
antithesis and 245-6
death 30, 62f.
realism 61
time factors 70

Warhol, Andy 144

Watkins, Carleton 129, 129f.

Ways of Seeing (Berger) 14, 216-18

Weegee (Arthur Fellig) 58

Weiner, Lawrence 178f.

Weston, Edward 181

“What Is a Picture?” (Lacan) 77-8

“Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” (Nochlin) 234

Why Photography Matters (Fried) 174-5, 176-7

Williams, Raymond 146, 166-7

Williams, Thomas Richard 159f.

Wolff, Dr. Paul 217f.

Wollen, Peter 65-6, 177

Wols (A. O. W. Schulze) 220f.

women 182
concealment 50
emotional factors 50
representation and 143, 177
threat and 130
undervalued and 234
see also sexual factors

work 48, 62-4
emotional factors and 64
industrial 62, 63f., 138, 141-2, 143
knowledge and 60

Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, The (Benjamin) 14

XYZ

Zizek, Slavoj 157-8

Zwart, Piet 212f.