Coleman, A.D., Depth of Field

Depth of field

Coleman, A.D. (1998) Depth of field. NY: Midmarch Arts Press.


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QuotesContentsIndex


Quotes

text


Contents

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Xlll

PREFACE XVii

  1. THE DESTRUCTION BUSINESS
    Some Thoughts on the Function of Criticism 1

2. ON REDACTION
Heaps and Wholes, or, Who Empties the Circular File? 25

3. DOCUMENTARY, PHOTO.JOURNALISM, AND PRESS PHOTOGRAPHY NOW
Notes and Questions 3 5

4. THE IMAGE IN QUESTION
Further Notes on the Directorial Mode 53

5. MUTANT MEDIA
Photo/Montage/Collage 63

6. THE VANISHING BORDERLINE
Sketch for a Manifesto on the “Democratization” of Art 81

7. CONSPICUOUS BY HIS ABSENCE
Concerning the Mysterious Disappearance of William Mortensen

8. LENTIL SOUP
A Meditation on Lens Culture 113

9. EDWARD S. CURTIS
The Photographer as Ethnologist 133

10. PRIVATE LIVES IN PUBLIC PLACES
The Ethics of Street Photography 159

11. EPILOGUE
Items for an Agenda 171

PUBLICATION CREDITS 179

PICTURE CREDITS I83

ABOUT THE AUTHOR 185

INDEX 187


Index A-C

A

Abbott, Berenice, 31, 75, 160

Abernathy, Billy (Fundi), 42, 49m3

Abramson, Michael, 42

Adams, Ansel, 93, 143; Mortensen and, 94,

95-96,99,104, 1101115,11 1111132,34;011

photo-documents, 104 previsualization

and, 73; propaganda and, 105; purist approach

of, 73; on Steichen, 110m4

A Day in the Life of . .. concept, criticism of,

49116

Ades, Dawn: on photomontage, 67

Affichistes, 74-75

Agee, James, 25

Albers, Josef, 29, 33118

Albert, Leonard: on critical distance, 5, 1 -16

Alhazen, II 8

AJkindi, l l 8

Alterman, Eric: on Ochs, 5on24

Alvarez Bravo, Manuel, 42 88 15–n40 i-3,

174

An1ateur artists, 231131; audience and, 1 ‘-1

Americans, The (Frank), 42

American Society of Media Phmograpbcrs,

Code of Ethics of, 168n8

Anderson, Marilyn, 5om8

Ansel, Ruth, 168n8

Anthropology: cultural/social, 142; photography

and, 137, 154n6, 15-n44; visual,

134,135,143,151,153,154n9

Antmann, Fran, 5on18

Arbus, Diane, 31, 160; commentary on, 3;

2211117, 9; Szarkowsk.i and, 29

Arecibo radio tekscope.. 1:::6.. Sa cadiordc-

scopc

_.\nmrrong. Louis: quorc .–9CaArrington,

Clarence, 161-62, 165, 168118

Art: bad/failed compared, 17-18; democratization

of, 81-89; folk forms of, 90117;

photography and, xvii, 26-27; successful,

18; technology and, 81-82, 87; thesis of,

81; top-down imposition of, 16

Art and Photography (Scharf), 67

Art education, 84; technology and, 85

Artists: art and, 9, II; criticism and, 10;

lotteries and, 172-73; performance standards

of, 15, 87; personality /output of,

12; religion and, 172-7 3; support for, 17.

See also Amateur artists; Professional

artists

Artists’ books 4 3 4

Arr of the people, 88, 173

Art photography, 171

Art teachers, contracts with, 172

Atget, Eugene, 29, 75, 104; photojournalism

and, 159

Audience: artists and, 12; art-world propaganda

and, 17; critics and, 9, II; interpretation and, 15

ausstellungskritik, 3

Austen, Alice, 30

Auteurism, 54; directorialism and, 56; photography and, 55-56

Auteur theory, 54-55

“Author as Producer” (Benjamin), 29

B

Bacon, Francis, 20

Bacon, Roger, u8

Baconian scientists,1 23

Bagdikian, Ben: on media monopoly, 45

Baldessari, John: photocollage/photomontage

and, 70

Baldwin, Gordon: on collage, 68

Balinese Character (Bateson and Mead), 141

Barthes, Roland, 58, 6m15; on criticism/

crisis, 7; quote of, 53

Barzun, Jacques: on art/intentions, 19

Bateson, Gregory, 141

Battle of the Books (Swift), 123

Bearden, Romare, 71; photocollage/photomontage

and, 70; photo-projections and,

79n27

Beck, Jnlian: Living Theatre and, 159

Beckmann, Max: on criticism, 5; on defining

art, 221112

Bellocq, E. J., 29

Bellows, George: Mortensen and, 94

Benjamin, Walter, 52n25, 86; on redaction,

29

Berger, John, 13, 46, 64; on artists, 12; on

criticism as intervention. 11

Berman. 􀅗􀅘􀅙– 99; phorocollage and,

66

Berman, Wallace, 76

Bernhard, Ruth, 59

“Best of the New Generation: Men and Women Under Forty Who Are Changing America, The” (Esquire), 40

Bikeriders, The (Lyon), 42

Binary code, 126; reproduction of, 127, 128

Birth of a Nation (Griffith), 18

Black in WhiteAmerica (Freed), 42

“Black Middle Class: Making It, The” (Neiv

York Times Sunday Magazine), 161

Blake, William, 10

Block, The (Gorn), 42

Blumann, Sigismw1d: on Weston, 91-92

Boas, Franz, 142, 1+4, 1551124

Body of work, guidelines for, 30-31, 32

Bolter, J. David: on defining technology, 81,

u3; on tools/culture, u8

Book, cultural attitudes toward, 43

Bourke-White, Margaret, 41; photojournalism

and, 37

Brassai:, 75, 160

Brecht, Bertolt, 521125, 60; on Heartfield,

66; on reproduction of reality, 57

Bresson, Robert: on cinematography, xi

1 SB INOEX

Bridgman, George: Mortensen and, 94

Brooks, Ellen, 58

Brown, James, 24n31

Burgin, Victor, 5rn25

Burning glass, rr8

Burroughs, William, rr7

Burson, Nancy, 76

Butler, Judith, xxi

Butler, Samuel, 123

Byers, Paul: on photographer/context, 142-43

C

Ciliun, Claude, 76

“California Pictorialism;’ 112n40

Callilian, Harry, 72, 75, 160; photomontage

and, 67

CameraArts, 109

Camera Craft (CC), 91, 96, 109117;American

Photography and, 109nr; Mortensen

and, 94, 99, 1101112; purist-pictorialist debate

in, 106; reviewing, 107

Camera Craft Publishing Co., Mortensen

books by, 94

Camera lucida, u7, 125

CameraLucida (Barthes), 6rn15

Camera obscura, rr7, rr9, 125, 129115

Campanella, Tomasa, 121-22

Caprice Vennois” (Mortensen), 99

Caprichos (Goya), 104

Cardano, Girolamo, 120; camera obscura

and, 125; lens and, rr9

Cardenal, Ernesto, 9onr7

Carmichael, Stokely: on definitions/society,

45, 5onr9

Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 36, 41, 42, 491113,

160

Casebere, James, 59

CC. See Camera Craft

Cendrars, Blaise, 159

Censorship, 19, 21n3

Center for Creative Photography, Mortensen and, 1 1 11139, 1121141; on Group F. 64,92

Chandler, Raymond, 54

Chappell, Walter, 129116; on camera vision, 74

Cheatwood, Derral, 143, 153

Chomsky, Noam: linguistic competence and, 115

Citizenship, responsible, 2-3

Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 75; photomontage and,73

Cohen, Stephen, 75

Collage, 67, 68; Cubist, 6 5; montage and,

77

Collier, John: on visual anthropo􀃦– 1r,

153

“Comanche,A” (Curtis), 132 1tp1udoctivo

of, 132

“Coming for the Bride” ( Curtis : reproduction

of, 139; Curtis caption fix. l :;Commanday,

Robert, 6

Command to Look, The ( Morn:osen), 9-f­

IIon8

Communication, 13, 4 -; communication

about, 120; effectiveness of, 14; lens and,

13m42; Other and, 14; photography and,

82, 84; visual, II 3; writing and, 84

“Composite Imagery and the Origins of

Photomontage” (Sobieszek), 67

Compound lens, 120, 121, 123; invention of,

II9

Computer culture, 82, 87, 88-89

Consilvio, Tom, 28

Contact: Theory, 31

Conversatwns With The Dead (Lyon), 42

Cooper, Gary, 154m2

Copernicus, Nicolas, 121

Corpron, Carlotta, 75

Cowin, Eileen, 59

Creative impulses, 76

Crimp, Douglas, 54-56

Crisis: Chinese ideogram for, 8; criticism

and, 7-8

Critical discourse, II, 12; thoughts on, 5–

Critical distance: establishing, ; lack of, 5-6

Critical tradition, establishment/continuity

of, 9-10

Criticism, 2211I6; giving/receiving, 16; root

of word, 7; thoughts on, 1-21

Critics, 5, 8, 2211I2; dissident, 19; and mosquitoes

compared, 12; obligation of, II-

12; reading, 10-u; unpopularity of, 9

“Crown” glass, 119

Cultural symbols, 160

Cultural zei􀀱eist, 15

Culture, photograph and, 136, 16o

Cununing, Robert, 59

Cunningham, Imogen, 31, 160

Cunningham, Merce, 231131

Curtis, Edward Sheriff, xix, 37, 1571140; anthropology

and, 141, 142, 152;

anthropology /photography and, 1571144;

as art photographer, 141; etlmology/

photography and, 157n44; frontispiece,

132; landscape photography by, 137-38;

models for, 152; Native Americans and,

134, 135-36, 141-42, 144-46,147, 152;

photo by, 138, 139, 144, 145, 146, 147,

148, 149, 150; recordings by, 147; visual

anthropology and, 135, 153; work of,

134-37, 143-44, 147, 151, 153, 1571140


D-L

D

Da Capo Press, 31

Dadaists: montage and, 78116; photomontage

and, 65, 66

Daguerre, L.JM., 159

Daguerreotype, 83, II7, 126, 1301134

Davenport, John L., 11 m34

“Death of H ypatia” ( Morrensen), 99; reproduction

of, 100

DeCarava, Roy, 42, 4911I 3, 157040

Defining teclmology, 113

De Gregorio, Carl: suit brought by, 1680

DeMille, Cecil B., 97, 154m2

Democrirus, n8

Department of Photography (Museun1 of

Modern Art), 96

Deren, Maya, 55

Descartes, Rene, 1 r 8

“Desert Cantos: The Playboys” ( Misrach),

75

Destruction, 2, 7, 8, 20

D .F.A. degree. See Doctor of Fine Arts degree

Diaphana (Maurolycus), II9

Dickens, Charles: quote by, 159

Dickinson, Emily, 9

Digges, Leonard: compound lens and, n9;

lens culture and, 120

Digital-camera systems, 86-87

Dwptrice (Kepler), 122

Directorialism: auteurism and, 56; mai1ifestation

of, 60

Directorial mode, xviii, 54, 57, 59, 60119, 97,

138

Directorial photographers: artifacts and, 58-

59; performance evoked by, 59-60

Direct-positive process, 83

Disasters of War (Goya), 104

Disbelief, suspension of, 58

Disfarmer, Mike: “Heber Springs Portraits” project and, 30

Dixon,Joseph K., 15511I3

Doctor of Fine Arts (D.F.A.) degree, 1 2

Docudrama, 13 3

Documentary photography: 35; defining,

36-37; docmnentaries, 35, 37, 40-41; debate

over, 5on24; invention of, 1; key

works of, 42; misunderstanding about,

42; objective/nonpolitical, 47; photojournalists

and, 38; pioneers of, 45-46; purpose

of, 36, 46, 47; reinventors of, 41-42;

self-defeating attitudes and, 48; technology

and, 44

Double exposures, 68, 75, 77n4

Dreams, Lies, and Exaggeratwns: Photomontage

inAmerica (exhibit), 67

Duncan, David Douglas, 37, 41, 4911I4

Dfuer, Albrecht: perspective and, II9

Dutton, Allen A., 79n29

Dylan, Bob, 8

E

Eastman, George: Kodak and, 83

Edelman, Bernard, 165115

Edgerton, Samuel Y., Jr., 13om9

Editorial control, 38

Educational theory, art and, 85

Edwards, Jolm Paul: Mortensen and, 94

Eisenstein, Sergei M., 79n30; montage and,

. l, -806

Elecrronic imaging, 36

Eliot, T. S., 15, 19, g–­

Elisha, Walter, 27

El Salvador (Meiselas), 40

Emerson, Peter Henry: Curtis and, 156029

Emmet, Herman, 5on18

Emotions, art and, 15

Engels, Frederick, 21m, 129n5

Ernst, Ma,x, 67

“Eskimo Men’s House” ( artist unknown),

145; reproduction of, 145

Esquire: “Golden Collector’s Issue” of, 40;

on Meiselas, 47

Ethnography, 140; objective, 143

Ethnology, 140; photography and, 141,

157n44

Euclid, II8

Evans, Walker, 75, 16o; affichisme and, 74-

75; Farm Security Administration images

by, 31

Ewald, Wendy, 49113, 900II

Exhibition critique, 3

“Exposition of My Photographic Technique,

An” (Adams), 99

Expression, photography and, 82

Extended form, 37

Eyeglasses, II8

F

Factoids, 16 3

“Family of Man, T he” (Steichen), 49n7

Faris, James C., 153

Farm Security Administration projects, 31,

41,48n2

Faucon, Bernard, 59

“Fauna” ( Fontcuberta and Formiguera),

5om7

Faurer, Louis, 75

Feedback loop, 15,16,21n4

Peiffer, Jules, 41

Fellow Teachers (Rieff), xxiin4

Fichter, Robert, 59

“Fire-Drill,K oskirno,T he” (Curtis),1 44;

reproduction of, 149

“Fish-Weir across Trinity River” (Curtis):

reproduction of, 146; Curtis caption for,

184

Flaherty, Robert, 55, 147, 1571137

Flash in Modern Photography (Mortensen),9 4

Fleming, John: on photomontage, 66

Flye, James Harold, 25-26

Fontcuberta, Joan, 501117

Porche, Carolyn, 20

Forman, Marjorie, vii, xv

Formiguera, Pere, 501117

Frank, Roberr, 20, 42, 56, 158n40, 160; on

criticism, 7

Freed, Leonard, 42

Freedman, Jill, 42

Free radicals, magnetic tug of, 8

French,Marilyn,20

Freud, Sigmund, photomontage and, 74,

8on38

Friday Night at the Coliseum (Winningham),

42

Friedlander, Lee, 7 5, 160

Friends of Photography, ro8

From One China to the Other ( CartierBresson and Sartre), 42

f.64 Group, 93, 94, 95; exhibit by, 92; Mortensen and, ro8

Fusco, Paul, 42

G

Gage, Simon Henry, 120

Galileo Galilei, 122, 123, 13onn18, 19; compound

lens and, 121

Garlock, Jonathan, 5om8

Gassan, Arnold, on Morrensen, ro9117

Gatewood, Charles, 160

Geertz, Clifford: anthropological writings

of, 151-52; on ethnographic account, 152

Genthe, Arnold, 160

Gemsheim, Alison: Mortensen and. 9 . 95

Gemsheim, Helmut, rn9; Mom:nsa:i and,

93,95

Giacomelli, Mario: directorialism .1Ild 6o

Gill, Delancey, 141

Gilpin, LaUia, 42, 15409

Goddard, H. H., 142

Goffman, Erving, 58; theatrical frame

138

Gordillo, Henry: on Moro:nscn, 11 n

Gorgoni, Gianfranco 161, 16-. 16808

Goro, Herb, 42

Goya, Francisco, 20 104

Graham, Martha, 9-

Gregory, R. L., 117

Griffith, D. W, 18

Griffiths, Philip Jones: photojoUinalism and,

37, 42

“Grinding Meal” (Curtis), reproduction of,

144

Grinnell, George Bird, 142

Grosz, George: photocollage/photo·

montage and, 70, 78116

Grotesque in Photography, The (Coleman),

xvi ii, II In 31

Group f. 64. See f. 64 Group

Groupthink, critics and, 8

Guadalupe Tepayac, 166115, 16705

Guggenheim Foundation, 107, 173

Gulliver’s Travels (Swift), 123

H

Haacke,Hans,46,50017

“Haida Chief’s Tomb at Yan, A ( CUitis):

reproduction of, 138 · Curtis caption for,

183

Hajek-Halke, Heinz: photomontage and, 71

“Hamatsa Emerging from the Woods,

Koskimo” ( CUitis), reproduction of, 148

Haptic, 154m 1

Hartmann, Sadakichi: on Curtis 155m6

Hausmann, Raoul: phorocollage/photomontage

and, 70

Heartfield, John, 67, 79029, 99; e.mibit by,

66; photocollage/phoromomage and, 66,

70, 74; working method of, -9026

“Heber Springs Portraits” project, 30

Heinecken, Robert, 76

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand

von,1561129

Hemingway, Ernest, 174

Henri, Robert: Mortensen and, 94

Herzfelde, Wieland, 69; photocollage and,

66

Heyman, T herese T hau, uoms; on Adams/

Mortensen, 96

Hillers, John K., 141

Hine, Lewis, 36, 1571138; documentary and,

40; photojoUinalism and, 159

History: issues of, xvii; myth and, 81

Hi.story of Photography: From I839 to the Present

Day, The (Newhall), 96, ID7, I08-9

Hoch, Hannal1, 791122; photocollage/

phoromonrage and, 70

Hodge., Frederick William, 142

Holmes, Oli\·er Wendell, rn5

Holmes, \\~illiam Henry 142

Honnef, Klaus: photomonrage and, 69; on

Robinson/Rejlander, 6-

Honour, Hugo: on photomonrage, 66

House, Suda: Mortensen exhibition and,

I08

Hugo, Victor, 43

“Human Relations 1932” (Mortensen), 99;

reproduction of, rn2

Hunt, George, 144

Huxley, Aldous: on decline of quality, 88,

89116

I

Ideological correctness, 46, 47; political effectiveness

and, 42

Image hybridization., 64, o, 76

Image-making, 36, 77, 124; photographic,

69, 70, 105

Images: controlling, 165; massmanufactured,

63-64; misuse of, 163; received,

64

Image selection, control of, 38

Indignation, criticism and, 2

Information: generation of, 120; lens and,

129; visual, II 9

Informational/ representational material,

36

Institutional theory of art, 9008

Intelligent Eye, The (Gregory), II7

Intentionalism, 32

In the Land of the Head-Hunters, CUitis and,

147, 1541112

I Protest! (Duncan),49l1I4

Irmas, Deborah, 108, 1 unn33, 39

“Itinerant Photographer;’ 31

Ives Charles, 93

Ivins, William M., Jr., 129118; on rationalization of sight, II 9

J

Jackson, Shirley, 16

Jacobi, Lotte, 59

Jargonization, 64

“Johan the Mad” (Mortensen), 99

Johnson, Wendell: on books/readers, 177

Joyce, James, 97

J. Paul Getty Museum, 68, 79n25

K

Kafka, Franz, 9

Kazantzakis, Nikos: on criticism, 2

Keil, Tilo, 76

Kenner, Hugh: on critical tradition, IO

Kepler, Johannes, II9, 122

King of Kings (DeMille), 97, 154m2

Kirstel, M. Richard, xiii, 29, 58, II8-19; on

matrix of distortion, 37

“Kiss, The” (Mortensen), 99

Klucis, Gustav G.: photomontage and, 68

Kodak,83,86,114

Korzybski, Alfred, 117

Kramer, Hilton: on failed art, 18

Krauss, Rosalind: on surrealism/photography,

68

Krims, Les, 56, 59

Kriz, Vile.m, 58

Kruger, Barbara: phorocollage/pboromontage

and, 70

Kuhn, Thoinas: on description, 56

L

La Causa (Fusco), 42

Lange,Dorothea,41,56, 104

Lartigue, Jacques-Henri, 160

Laughlin, Clarence John: photomontage

and, 73

Layout patterns, 39

Leach, Bernard: on unknown craftsman, 81

Leeuwenhoek, Anthony von, 12 3

Lens culture, II6, 121, 126, 129; development

of, u8, 120; emergence of, 124

Lenses: communication and, 131n42; cultural

in1pact of, 125; culture’s relationship

with, n3; information and, 129; obje c tivity

of, n4;

Lens imagery, 120, 121, 124- 126, 129

Lentil, 126, 129

Lesy, Michael, 30

Levinthal, David, 58

Levitt, Helen, 160

Liebling, Jerome, 42

Life and Landscape on theN oifolk Broads

(Emerson), 156n29

Lin,Mai, 13

Linguistic competence, 115

Lippard, Lucy: on Curtis, 140, 156028

Living Theatre, 159

Looking at Photographs: A Guide to Tedmical

Terms (Baldwin), 68

Los Angeles Center for Photographic Studies,

II 1n32

Lotteries, artists and, 172-73

“Lottery, The” (Jackson), 16

Lowenfeldt, Viktor, 15 4nr 1

Lowie, Robert H., 142; on Curtis, 155n26

Lubasz, Heinz: on moral problems, 19

“Lucii Ferraris” (Mortensen), 99; reproduction

of, 98

Lustrum Press, 31

Lyman, Christopher, 141, 145,156nn27, 28,

30; anthrnpological photographs and,

156n30; on Curtis, 143

Lyon, Danny, 42


M-R

M

McLuhan, Marshall: on book as artifact, 43:

on media, 63

Maar, Dora, 76

Made in Germany (Freed), 42

MagiaeNaturalis (Porta), 125

Making things look, 57

Malcolm, Janet, 4

Maldonado, Ada.I, 79n29

Malina, Judith, 159

Mann, Margery, 1121140

Mapplethorpe, Robert, 17

Mark, Mary Ellen: directorialism and, 6on9

Martinez, Eniac, 166n5°

Martone, Michael, 58, 76

Marvell, Andrew, 123

Marx, Karl, 129n5; on criticism, 2

Mass media, 64; documentary /photojournalistic

practice in, 47; factoids in, 163;

photography and, 45

Mata, Francisco, 166n5

Mattison, Harry, 5on21

Maurolycus, Franciscus, 120, 122; on glass

lenses, II9

Mead, Margaret, 141, 156n28; on

anthropology/photography, 154n6; on

photographer-analyst, 143; visual anthropology

and, 154n10

.\fearvard, Ralph Eugene, 58

Mciei, Richard, 23n31

Meiselas, Susan, 35, 45; books by, 40; Esquire

on, 47; photojournalism and, 40;

press photography and, 39, 40

Metacommunication, 120, 124

Metzker, Ray, 76

Mexican Indigenous population, 16–n5

Meyerowitz, Joel: on street photography,

160, 165n4

M.F.A. degree, 171, 172

Michals, Duane, 58, 59, 9 · montage process

and,72

Microfiche, documentary and. 46

Microscopes, II7, 126; impaaof, 122, 124;

references to, 122-26

Minamata ( Smith and Smirh . 41 42

Mise-en-image, 58, 97 138

Misinterpretation, problems v.im, r 3

Misrach, Richard, 75

MobyDick (Melville),93

Model, The ( Mortensen l, 94

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo, -3. 90DI4

Mohr, Jean, 46

Molinier, Pierre, 76

Monsters andMadmmas: A Bd ufM ethods

(Mortensen), 9+, 96-, 10908

Montage, 66, 68; collage and, 77; film editing

and, 71; media,-Montage

andModnnLifr (Phillips), 69

Moore, Henrv, 9-: on critics, 5, 221113

Morgan, Barbara. 􀅊 n36· photomontage

and,73,74

Mortensen, M yrdith. I I lllllH 39

Mortensen, William, – _::. 111.Il26· direc·

torial mode and, 9-: essay on. niii, m:

exile of, 93, ro6–; inirucna: oi.. 94-9·,

108-9,109-1008: pboro by. 98, 100, 101,

102, 103; propa,,,oanda and, 104,105;

purism/picrorialism and, 95; work of, 96,

97, 99, 105, I 11039

Mortensen on the Segative (Mortensen), 94

Mortensen School of Photography, 94

Mueller,T homas, 4903

Miiller-Pohle, Andreas., 6on4

Munari, Bruno, -911.24

Murillo, Rosario, sxm1-

Mimnurs ofE arth (Sagan),1 26

Muses, 2, 16; critics and, 1

Museum of Modern Arr, 96; Heartfield at,

66; press release by, 27-28

Muybridge, Eadweard, r 3 3

Myers, William E., 144

N

Nagatani, Patrick, 59

“NakoaktokMawihl, A:” (Curtis), 150; reproduction

of, 150

Nanook of the North (Flaherty), Curtis and,

147, 1571137

National Endowment for the Arts, 17, 173

Naturalistic Photographyf or Students ofA rt

(Emerson), 1561129

Negative sandwiches, 72, 75

Neruda, Pablo, 88

New American photography, 171, 174-75

New ColumbiaEncyclopedia, The, xvii-J1.-viii,

xix

Newhall, Beaumont, 108, r 1on14; Curtis

and, 154112; exhibits and, 96; Mortensen

and,93-94,95,107,109, 111n34;on

photomontage, 68-69

Newhall, Nancy: Mortensen and, 94, 95;

pictorialism and, 96

Newman, Arnold, 59

New Museum for Contemporary Art, 39

New York Observer, 3, 4, 18

NewYork&r,inv of Books, The, 4, 22116

New York State Council on the Arts, 1-3

NnvYork Times, 161, 165; on Curtis, 134

Nicaragua ( Meiselas), 40

“Nicaragua Media Project, The;’ 39-40

Nicolson, Marjorie: on microscope, 123; on

telescope, 122, 125

Niepce, Joseph Nicephore, 126, 159

Nietzsche, Friedrich: on critics/mosquitoes,

12

in, Ana.is, 73

orris,F rank,4 3

orth American Indian, The (Curtis), 3 7,

133,152, 153; images in, 143-44; making

of, 135-36

NouveauxR.calistes, 74

Nystrom, Christine L., 13m43

O

Objectivity: journalism and, 47; photography

and, 501124, 151

Obscura, II 1n32

Observation, verification of, 125

Ochs, Adolph, 501124

Oeuvre, 32, 88; contents of, 31; defining, 30

Old Curiosity Shop, The (Dickens), quote

from, 159

Oliveros, Pauline, 89

O’Neill, Eugene, 97

Ortega, Daniel, 9om7

Ortega y Gasser, Jose: on decline of quality, 88

Ortiz Echagiie, Jose, l II 1124

Osborn, Fairfield, and Curtis, 142

Other, co=unication and, 14

P

Pacific International Photographers’ Association,

CC and, 91

“Pageant of Photography, The” (exhibit),

Adams and, 95

Palante: Young Lords Party (Abramson), 42

Palfi, Marion, 42, 49nr 3, 154n9

Paper calotype, rr 7

Papert, Seymour: on computers/children,

87

Paradise Lost (Milton), 123

Pare, Richard, 48n2

Parker, William: on eyes/photography, rr8

Parks, Gordon, 49nr2

Partridge, Roi, 94, 99

Passion, 7

Paz, Octavio, 88

Peckinpah, Sam, 5 5

Penn, Irving, 160

Pepys, Samuel, 123

Perrault, John: on art criticism, ro

Persistence of vision, 71

Persuasion, art and, 19

Pemrrbation theory, photography and, 161

Phillips, Christopher: on photomontage, 69

Phillips, Donna-Lee. 4-: on phorojoumalism,

46

Phococollage, xx, 68, 8:-; 􀅧iie-,

791125; photomontage and, 65, 67, 69—70,

75-76, 77, 791124; purists and, 71; realism

and, 73; roots of, 70; Surrealist, 65, 66

“Photo-Document, The” (Adams), 99,104

Photo-documents, 104

Photogram, II7

Photographic culture, rr6

“Photographic Magic of William Mortensen,

The” (exhibit), rrrn32

Photographs: about culture/of culture, 136;

as collaboration, 57; collecting, 4; data/

information on, 151; making, 83; objective

generation/interpretation of, 134,

147; op inion/fiction and, 58;

predictability /literalness of, 72; as work of

art, 82

Photography: arr and, nii; digitized, 6 5;

gaps in literature aboUI, niii.; iruroduction

of, rr7, 159; vernacular, -‘3, s-; ,isual

sophistication of, 82-83, 84, II5

Photography (Upton and Upton), 35

“Photography 18 39-1937” (exhibit), Newhall

and, 96

Photography ptogran1s, 84, 171

Photography Sesquicentennial Project, 43

194 INDEX

Photojournalism, 35, 40, 159; described, 36,

37-38, 44, 47; key works of, 42; methodology

for, 46; objective/non political,

47; pioneers of, 45-46; self-defeating attitudes

and, 48; technology and, 43-44

Photo League, 41

Photo Metro, 4

Photomontage, xx, 68, 78n10, 87; as

analogue/metaphor, 74; artificiality of, 72;

authentic, 69; Dada, 66; daguerreotype,

791125; decline of, 73; defining, 70, 71,

77n4; photocollage and, 65, 67, 69-70,

75-76, 77, 791124; process of, 72-73; realism

and, 73

Photormmtage (Ades), 67

Photo opportunity, 39

Picasso, Pablo, 85, 89; on artists, 15; on criticism,

5

Pictorialists, 140; purists and, 95, 105-7

Pictorial Lighting (Mortensen), 94

Picture-making, 76; evolution of, 65; intervening

in, 163-65

Pictures of East Anglian Life (Emerson),

156n29

Pierpont Morgan Library, Curtis and, 134

‘-1’imaKi”‘ (Curtis): reproduction of, 147;

Curtis caption for, 184

Plagens, Peter, 89nr

Plainsman, The, Curtis and 154nr2

Plate glass, rr9

Playboy, rr6; Wilson in, rr5

Political effectiveness, 41-42, 47, 48, 511125;

defining, 501124; ideological correctness

and,42

Pollitt, Katha, 521125; on postmodernists, xxi

Pollock, Jackson, 24n31

Popular art, 88, 173

Porta, Giovanni Battista della, 125

Positive-negative processes, 83

Postman, Neil, xix, 131n43

Pound, Ezra, 19, 97; on artists, 64

Power, Henry: metaphor of, 123; on

telescope/microscope, 122

Power, Mark: criticism by, 4

Prephotographic culture, rr6, 121

Press photography, 45; defining, 35, 38-39

“Principal Female Shaman of the Hupa”

(Curtis) : reproduction of, iv; Curtis caption

for, 18 3

Printing: combination, 68, 72, 77n4; photographic,

70, 97; woodblock, rr8

Professional artists: audience and, 13-14;

critical discourse and, 18; financial success

for, 23031

Projection Control (Mortensen), 94

Propaganda,104, 105

Ptolemy, n8, 121

Public discourse, 9, 19, 22Jl4· quality/

quantity of, 2

Purism, 1 ro.1110; pictorialism and. 94-96, 105-7

Q

“Quest for Pure Form, The (Mortensen), 99; reproduction of, 101

R

Radical, criticism and.

Radio telescope: 126, 1- i- message reproductions

of, 12-. P

Ramirez, Sergio, 90.n 1-

Rauschenberg, Roben. -6

Ray, Man, 79028; Oil cri:ricism., 7 12;’0.n

nonphotograph.ic dana:us, 1

Reagan, Ronald., 40

Realism, photocollagc phoromontage and,

73

Reality, reproduction of, 5-

Recontextualization, cboughts on, 162-63

Redaction, 2-, 29, o-3 1

Red Hawk, 151

Reflections upon.Ancient and Modern Learning

(Wotton), 123

Reissman, \\􀈽, ,>Il26

Rejlander, 0. G 69, 9I122· direaorialism

and, 60; phoromontage and, 6-, -Religion,

artists and. 1′”‘2-

Representation, ua=..;:,;.

Reproduction qu:ili _–.

R£surrection Ci.ty Frccc= . 2

Richards, Eugene, 5 I

Richards, I. A., 15

Riefenstahl, Leni, 18-19

Riis, Jacob: documenra,􀈾· and. 40; photojournalism

and, 159

Ritch.in, Fred, 43-44 49m6

Rizzuto, Angelo, 30

Robinson, Henry Peach, 69, -9I122; directorialism

and, 60; photomontage and, 67,

73

Rodriguez, Sebastian, 5onr8

Rogovin, Milton, 42

Rnsa Ursinasive Sol (Scheiner), 122

Rosenbaum, Ron: on self-parody, 52n25

Rosenberg, Harold: on criticism, 16-17

Rosenblum, Naomi, 69; on Curtis, 140;

Mortensen and, 109; on photomonrage/

photocollage, 67

Rosier, Martha, 5rn25, 77n3

Rouson, John Henry: cartoon by, II5-16;

reproduction of, rr6

Rubin, William, 69; on photomontage/

photocollage, 67

Ryle, Gilbert, 151


S-Z

S

Sackrey, Charles, 88

Sagan, Carl: on radio telescopes, 126

St. Augustine, II8

Salgado, Sebastiao, 44

Sander, August, 37, 41

Sartre, Jean-Paul, 42

Scharf, Aaron: on Ernst/Heartfield, 67

Scheiner, Christophorus, 122

Scholarship, xx-xxi, 31, 32

Schulze, Johann Heinrich: image-making

and, 124

Schwarz, Heinrich: on photography, 124

Science, photography and, 82,117,126,151

Scully, Julia, 30

Seagram’s “Courthouse” project, 48112

“Seeing Straight” (exhibit), Newhall and,

109, l 101115

Sekula,Allan,511125

“Selections from the Collection: Dada and

Surrealism” (exhibit) 66

Self-criticism,

Sdf-aprcssion. 13, I

Sara, Richard. l 6, l –

Scrrano,Andres, 17,23n32

Shakespeare, William, 93

Shavelson, Lonny, 5om8; on photography,

27

Sherman,C indy,5 6,6 omo;d irectorial and,

60119

Siderius Nuncius (Galileo), 121, 13om8

Sight gags, 115

Silk, Gerald, 791124

Sinunons, Laurie, 58

Sinclair,U pton, 43

Siskind,Aaron, 31, 75

Sitney, P. Adams: on criticism, 6, 7

6oMinutes, photojournalism and, 49115

Sketchbooks, computer-imaged, 88

Skoglund, Sandy, 59

Smith, Aileen, 41, 42, 511125

Smith, Paul Chaat: on Curtis, 1551123

Smith, W. Eugene, 41, 44, 4911119, 12, 5on23. 51n25,611117,97,157n4o; on journalism

Smith, W. Eugene (cont.)

objectivity, 47; Mortensen and, ro9-

ron8; photojournalism and, 37; work of,

42

Sobieszek, Robert: on photomontage, 67

Social research, photography and, r 3 3

Social Text, xxi, 52n25

Socrates, criticism and, 5

Sokal, Alan, xxi, 521125

Solomon-Godeau, Abigail, 50-52n25

Somnium (Kepler), r22

Sontag, Susan, 32, 34nr2, 6on6; on photography,

160

Space, 58; place and, 59; symbolic compression

of, r25

Spengler, Oswald: on lens, cultural impact

of, r25

Spielberg, Steven, 55

Springs Industries, grant from, 27

Standard Oil project, 48112

Starn, Doug: photocollage/photomontage

and, 70

Starn, Mike: photocollage/photomontage

and, 70

Srasz, Clarice., 143, 153

“Steel Srod:s Ad\’ana:􀄦 􀄧iorrensen , 99: reproduction

of, 103

Steichen, Edward, 23n31, 49n7, 107-8,

r ronr4; photomontage and, 73

Stevenson, Robert Louis: on enthusiasm for

art, 16; on writing, x.i

Stieglitz,Alfred, 23n31, 160; photomontage

and, 73

Stock Photographs (Winogrand), critique of,

26

Strand, Paul, 41, 157n40, 160; photomontage

and, 73; purist approach of, 73

Streep, Meryl, 23n31

Street Life in London (T homson), r59

Street photography, 159, 160

Stress analysis, –8, 9, 23n2r

Stryker, Roy, 41, -+8=

Subcommander Insurgent Marcos, communique

by, 165-68n5

Suffer, Little Children (Palfi , 42

Sup, 167-68n5; photographs by, 166-6-n5

Surrealism, photography and, 68

Suspension of disbelief, 58

Swift, Jonathan, 123

Szarkowski, John, 29, 30; on Curtis, 140; on Curtis/Emerson, 156n29; on North American Indian, 133; on Winogrand, 27-28

T

Tabard, Maurice, 72

Talbot, William Henry Fox, 13on37;

negative-positive process and, 70

Teaching artists, contracts with, 172

Technology, 43, II3-14; art and, 81-82, 85,

87; communications, 2; epistemology

and, 87; imaging, 87-88; invisibility of,

114; photography and, 82, 86; problemsolving

and, 44

Telberg, Val, 72; photomontage and, 67, 73

Telescopes, II?, 126; impact of, 120-22,

124; references to, 122-24

Ten Commandments, The ( DeMille), Curtis

and, 154n12

Teske, Edmund, 8on37; photomontage and,

71, 73

T heory, issues of, xvii

T homson, John, 159

T horeau, Henry David, 2

T horne-Thomsen, Ruth, 59

T hornton, Colleen, vii, xv

“Tilted Arc” controversy, 16

Tintype, 83

“Tomoko Uemura in her bath” (Smith), 41

Totalitarian forces, art and, 18-19

Tracey,Andree,59

Tress, Arthur, 59

Tretyakov, Sergei, 78nm; on Heartfield, 66;

photocollage and, 69

Tribal society, artisanry and, 81

Triumph of the Will ( Riefenstahl), 19

Troeller, Linda, 5onr8

“Truro, Massachusetts” (Evans), 74

Tuchman, Barbara: on decline of quality, 88

Turner, G. l:Estrange: on photography/

science, 126

Tweedy-Holmes, Karen, xviii

U

Uelsmann, Jerry N., 72, 78n4, 79n37; photocollage

and, 69; photomontage and, 71, 73

Untitled ( Arb us), 3

US. Camera Annual, II rn34

U.S. Supreme Court, on garbage/privacy,

33nr3; Yeshiva University decision, 172

V

Valery, Paul, 15

Van Der Zee, James, 76

Van Dyke, Willard: Mortensen and, 94

Van Gogh, Vincent, 89

Vargas,K athy,v ii,x v,r 58n

”Venus and Vulcan: An Essay on Creative

Pictorialism” (Mortensen), 99

Vestal,D avid,2 31131

Vietnam, Inc. (Griffiths), 42

Village Voice, 2m3, II4

Villegle, Jacques: affichisrne and, -4–5

Visible Light (Lesy), 30

Vision, persistence of, 71

Visual anthropology, 134- P5, 1-1.1, 151,

153, 1541110

Visual Arts: A History, Tix (Honour and

Fleming), 66

Visual images, 63, ll , 1301141

Vroman, Adam Clark, rs+n9

W

Waddell, Edward W.: on technology/community

and social stratification, 86

Wagner, Jon: on social research/photography,

133

Walcott, Charles Doolittle, 142

Wanamaker, Rodman, 1551113

Warhol, Andy: famous prophecy of, 85

Wayne, Cynthia, 6

Weber, Nicholas Fox, 29

Weegee (Arthur Fellig), 160

Weiner, Norbert: feedback loop and, 15

Western civilization: art and, 85; photography

and, 116,125

Weston, Brett, 34m4

Weston, Charis, 108

Weston, Cole, 108

Weston, Edward, 31, 59; Blumann on, 91-

92; f.64 Group exhibition and, 92; Mortensen

and, 94, 95, 109117; photomontage

and, 73; purist approach of, 73

Wet-plate methods, 8 3

“What is Good Photography?” (Partridge),

99

“What is Pictorialism?” (Newhall), 96

White, Lynn, Jr.: on technology, II 3-14

White, Minor, 25, 611117, 97; on critics, 11

Whitney Museum, Haacke at, 5om7

“Who Is Speaking Thus?” ( Solomon-

Godeau), 51-521125

Wilson, Galian: cartoon by, n5; reproduction

of, 115

Winningham, Geoff, 42

Winogrand, Garry, 28-29, 31, 6m12, 160;

critique of, 26; press release about, 27-

Witkin, Joel-Peter, 20, 58

Wollaston, William Hyde, 125

Woodman, Francesca, 30, 331110

Worth, Sol, 143; on photograph/culture..

136

Wotton, William: on telescope / microscope.. 123

Writing, 25; communication and, 84

Wulz, Wanda, 76

Wylie, Philip: on critics, 5

XYZ

Yeager, Bunny: and Sherman, 601110

Young, George Allen: Camera Craft and, 91.

92-93

Youngblood, Gene: on montage as collage,

71

Zabriskie Gallery, Villegle at, 74

Zapatistas, communique from, 165-68115

Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Ernesto, 166115

Zola, Emile, 43