Bull, Stephen

Photography

Bull, S. (2010) Photography. Abingdon,Oxon: Routledge.


ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

QuotesContentsIndex


Quotes

text


Contents

Introduction: Photography Now
The structure ef this book

The Identity of Photography
Fixing the image: the conception of photography 
Modernism: the nature of photography 
Postmodernism: the culture of photography 
The thing itself? The question of indexicality 
Past/present/future: photography and time 
Digital debates: revolution or evolution? 
The photograph as object: materiality 
The photograph as image: dematerialisation 
From fixity to transience: the re-conception of photography

The Meanings of Photographs
Understanding semiotics: signs, signifiers and signifieds 
A bag ef pasta and a cup of tea: rhetoric of the image 
Fixing meanings: words 
Fixing meanings: contexts 
Fixing meanings: discourses 
Photography and psychoanalysis: the unconscious,fetishism and the uncanny 
Pleasures of looking at photographs: the Gaze 
Viewers of photographs: other looks 
Camera Lucida: studium and punctum

Photography for Sale
Photography for selling: advertising and identification 
From selling products to creating atmospheres: advertising photography and image banks 
Photography against selling: subvertising and stencils 
Selling photographs: marketing the media 
Selling photography: mass-marketing the medium 
Sellin9 digital photography. Fixed and transient commodities

Snapshots
Private snapshots: the silent majority of photography 
The nature of snapshots: the snapshooter’s eye 
The Kodak Culture of snapshots: tourism,family and memory 
Phototherapy: the family album and beyond 
Digital snapshots: screens and performance 
Online social networking: snapshots go public

The Photograph as Document
Photographs as evidence: portraits and surveillance 
Classification by observation: anthropology and colonialism 
Objective fictions: dowmentaiy photography and photojournalism 
Subjective facts: documentaiy photography in the photobook and gallery 
Shock and awe: war and its aftermath 
Evidence by participants: amateur documents and citizen journalism

Photographs as Art
Pictorialism: photography as painting 
Modernism: ‘straight’ photography 
Photography in the modern art gallery: authorship and expression 
Conceptual art: artists using photography 
Postmodernism: the artist as photographer and ‘the death of the author’
Contemporary art photography: the photographer as artist

Photographs in Fashion
The 1920s to the 1960s: elitism to accessibility 
The 1970s and the 1980s.fantasy 
Into the 1990s: abject realism 
Post-photographic / pre-millennial fashion photography: anxiety and desire 
The 2000s: performance art

Photography and Celebrity
The face of celebrity: photographing the famous
The Golden Age of Celebrity: fame and mass reproduction
The celebrity close-up: paparazzi photography and fan culture
The circle of shame: mortification and the Age of Mass Celebrity
Virtually famous: digital reproduction and online celebrity

Conclusion: After Photography?
Further reading 
Further resources
Bibliography 
Index


Index A-C

7/7 119-20 9/11 19, 117, 118,1 19, 121, 291 129
A

Abbott, Berenice 132
Abject Realism 156-61
abject, abjection 116, 159
Abstract Expressionism 133, 134
abstraction 129, 133
Abu Ghraib 119, 121
acid house 157
Adams,Ansel 75,133,134
Adams, Eddie 115
Adams, Robert 142
Adbusters 70, 71
Adorno, Theodor 64
advertising photography 2, 62-72, 112
advertising-work 63
‘aftermath’ photography see ‘late photography’ Age of Mass Celebrity, The 168, 177-83
Alas, Mert 158
Allen, Lily 183
Allen, Woody 174
Althusser, Louis 36, 64
amateur documents 119-22
anchorage 40, 150
anthropology 4, 105-7
Antin, Eleanor: Carving:A Traditional Sculpure 137
Antonioni, Michelangelo 153
appropriation 138
apres-garde 134
Araki, Nobuyoshi 112
Arbus, Diane 113
archives 103
Arena magazine 155
Arnatt, Keith 136; Self-Burial 135
Arnold, Rebecca 159, 160
art photography 2, 20, 73, 74, 83,114, 133, 141-5, 165, 170
ascendant celebrity 172, 178
Atget, Eugene 107-8, 132
atmospheres 62, 68
‘attributed’ celebrity 179, 183-4
‘aura’ 9, 25, 72, 74, 126 132
author, authorship 45, 130-3, 139-40
automatism 49
avant-garde 127-8, 129,131, 133
Avedon, Richard 151, 165

B

Badger, Gerry 74
Bailey, David 151, 152, 153, 157, 168
Baldessari, John: Throwing Three Balls in the Air to Get an Equilateral Triangle 135
Baltz, Lewis 142
Banksy 71-2
Bardot, Brigitte 178
Barnardo’s, Dr 104
Barr,Alfred H 129,130
Barthes, Roland 17, 2 0, 27, 32, 33-6, 40,42,53,5 7-8,66, 122, 139–40, 149,162 ; Camera Lucida 17, 25-6, 34, 58, 59, 92, 102, 185; ‘Death of the Author’ 139-140; ‘Elements of Semiology’ 34 ; ‘Myth Today ‘ 33–4;Mythologies 78; ‘Photographic Message, The’ 34, 36; ‘Rhetoric of the Image’ 34, 35-6, 37, 41, 66
Baskin, Wade 32
Bass, Michelle 179
Batchen, Geoffrey 8, 12, 13 , 1 5, 17-18, 22, 23, 25,26, 58-9, 72, 73, 74, 75,83-84,92,93
Bate, David 58, 119
Baudelaire, Charles 24, 124, 126, 135
Baudrillard, Jean 2 7, 70, 116
Bazin, Andre 14 , 15; ‘Ontology of the Photographic Image, The’ 17
BBC 120
Beard, Richard 72
Beatton, Cecil 150
beauty 124, 144
Becher, Bernd 141-2
Becher, Hilla 141-2
Becker, Karin E 174-75
Beckham, David / Victoria 175
‘belly button’ photography 130
Belsey, Catherine 113
Benjamin, Walter 9, 11, 12, 2 5, 27, 41 2, 74, 126, 13 2, 134, 170; ‘Short History of Photography, A’ 31, 41, 59; ‘Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, The’ 36 , 170
Bentham, Jeremy 104
Berliner Illustriete Zeitung 109
Berman, Linda 93
Bernhardt, Sarah 168, 169
Bertillon, Alphonse 103
Big Brother 179
Billingham, Richard 112, 141
black and white photography 112
Blair, Cherie 175
Blair, Tony 175
blogs 98
Blossfeldt, Karl 130
Blow Up 153
‘blurring boundaries’ 144
Boas, Gary Lee 176, 177
body, the 158
body horror 121
Boorstin, Daniel 88
Bourdieu, Pierre 89
Bourdin, Guy 153, 154
Bowness, Alan 136
box cameras 76
Brady, Matthew 115,118
Brandt, Bill 110
Braudy, Leo 16 9, 177
Brecht, Bertolt 42
Breton, Andre 49
Bright, Susan 124-5, 126,149,164
Britain’s Got Talent 179
British Photography from the Thatcher Years exhibition 43-4
Brittain, David 25
Brooks, Rosetta 153-4
Brownie camera 83
Bruner, Gordon C 176
Bulger, James 105
Burgin, Victor 12, 5 1, 52-3, 56, 63 , 111; Photo-Path 136, 137
Burrows, Larry 115
Butin, Herbertus 176
Butler, Judith 154-5
Butlin’s holiday camps 132

C

Calvin Klein 70-1, 164, 165
camera clubs 134
camera lucida 7, 57-9 camera obscura 6, 7, 8, 23–4, 28, 77
camera phones 1, 26, 27, 78, 79, 97, 121
Camera Work 129
Cameron, Julia-Margaret 73, 75, 125, 169
Campany, David 95, 117,119,13 4, 138, 145
Capa, Robert 109, 110, 111, 115, 116, 132
captions 40, 42, 94
Carlyle, Angus 121
Carrey, Jim 1 8 3
cartes de visite 72, 73, 93, 171
Cartier-Bresson, Henri 18, 86, 109, 111
Cartwright, Lisa 7, 10, 12, 66, 70
castration complex 4 7, 48
CCTV 104-5 ; see also surveillance
celebrity 75, 165, 167-84
celebrity gossip magazines see magazines
Chadwick, Alexander 120, 121 ;Evacuating Through Tube Iunnel 2 129
Chalfen, Richard 40, 82, 83, 84, 85-7, 88,91
Charles, Prince 175
Cher 174
Chiari, Walter 174
China Daily newspaper 184
Christie’s 73
Churchill, Winston 21, 99
cinema 48, 50-3
Circle of Shame!, The 182
citizen journalism ( citizen photojournalism) 119-22
Clark, Larry 165
Clinton, Bill 159
Closer magazine 180, 181
Cobain, Kurt 157
Cobley, Paul 95
codes 36
Collings, Matthew 57
colonialism 105-7
colour photography 73, 112
Commes des Garcons 165
commodification 72
commodity fetishism 64
Communism 113
composition 53, 143-4, 150
Comte, Auguste 105
Conceptual Art 4,123, 134-7, 141, 144, 163
Conceptualism see Conceptual Art
‘concerned’ documentary 108
condensation 4 7
connotation 34-6, 42
conscious, the 46, 47
construction 114
Constructivism 130
context 11-13,4 1-3, 100-2, 112-13, 145
Corbis 69, 74, 75
Cotton, Charlotte 142
Courbet, Gustave 158
Cowan, John 152, 153; Flying High152
Craik, Jennifer 151, 154
Crary, Jonathan 6 , 7, 23-4, 25
Crewdson, Gregory 142
Crinip, Douglas 132,137, 1 38
critical language 4
Cruel and Tender exhibition 123
Cubism 129
culture 5, 9, 10, 11, 13, 27-9
Cunningham, Imogen 133
Cyberdog 163


D-H

D

Daguerre, Louis Jacques Mande 9, 18, 72, 77
daguerreotype 8, 23, 24, 72
Daily Mirror 173
Dali, Salvador 176
Darwin, Charles 103
Darzaq, Denis: Chute, La (The Fall)19
Davies, John 43
Day, Corinne 148,157,158,160; Kate’s Flat, 1993 147, 148
Dazed and Confused 157, 158, 161
deadpan photography 142
Debord, Guy 70, 138
‘decisive half-minute’ 86
‘decisive moment’ 18, 86,109,117, 179
Deely, John 110
Degas, Edward: Absinthe Drinker, The 160
Delacroix, Eugene 160
Delaroche, Paul 8, 21
dematerialisation 26, 135
Dennis, Kelly 140
denotation 34-5, 37-8
Depp, Johnny 183
Derrick, Robin 161
Derrida, Jacques 13
descendant celebrity 179, 181
detournement 70, 138
Diamond, Dr Hugh 104
Diana, Princess ofWales 2, 175, 179
Diaz, Cameron 181
Dickens, Charles 169
diCorcia, Philip-Lorca 164
differance 13
digital photography 5, 22, 26-7, 45, 78-80, 89, 95-8
digital reproduction 59, 183-4
digital technology 27-9
Diorama 77
disavowal 48, 49, 51 , 81
discourse 12, 32, 43-6, 131
Disdcri, Adolph-Eugene 72, 75
displacement 47
Ditto, Beth 158
Doane, Mary Ann 55
documentary, origin of term 107-8
documentary photography 4, 22, 23, 107-22, 15 1-2, 157-8, 165
‘documentary style’ 113
Doisneau, Robert 55, 110
Donovan,Terence 151,1 57
doppelganger 49
Dore, Gustave 168
doubling 49
Dove: ‘Campaign for Real Beauty,The’ 158
dream-work 47, 63
Drew, Richard 119
Duffy, Brian 151, 157
Dusseldorf Academy of Arts 141
Dyer, Gillian 39
Dyer, Richard 155
dystopia 162

E

Eastman, George 75-6, 87
eating disorders 158
eBay 69
Eco, Umberto 70, 115, 119
ecology see environment
Edwards, Elizabeth 23, 25, 40, 89, 93, 106, 107
Edwards, Steve 16, 113
Eggleston, William 112
Eisenstein, Sergei 42
Ekberg, Anita 174, 181
emails 98
embedded photojournalism 116
emotions 46
encoding, decoding 70
encyclopaedias 7, 105, 106
England, Lynddie 119
Enlightenment 6, 7, 8, 10, 103, 105
environment 62, 64, 67
‘epoch-making’ photographs 115, 119
eugenics 103
Evans, Walker 12,108,113,139
Evening Standard 171, 175
exchange value 66
Exhibition of Fine Arts, Paris 124
Exhibitionism 55
‘expressive realism’ 111, 113

F

f64 Group 133
Face, The 156, 157, 161
Face of Fashion 160
Facebook 80, 98-9, 100,102,183
Fake, Caterina 28
Fame Academy 178
family albums see photo albums
Family of Man, The exhibition 112-13, 131
family photography 87-92
fan culture 167, 173-7
fantasy 153-6
Farm Security Administration (FSA) 108, 109, 113, 114, 132
fashion magazines see magazines
fashion photography 2, 144, 147-65
Fashioning Fictions exhibition 164
Fellig, Arthur (Weegee) 110
Fellini, Federico 174
feminism 12
Fenton, Roger 7 3, 75, 115; Valley of the Shadow of Death, The 115, 117
fetishism 4 8-9, 51, 54, 79
FHM magazine 183
Film and Foto 130
Fiske, John 33
fixed commodities 78-80
‘fixed photography ‘ 27-9, 186
Flaherty, Robert 108, 115
Flaming Star (1960) 171
Flickr 28, 98, 120
Foto-eye 130, 131
Fotolog 98
Foucault, Michel 43, 104
found photography 93
Fox, Anna 112
Frank, Robert 111
freedom, representations of 69
Freeman, Hadley 165
Freud, Sigmund 46-9, 51, 55, 56, 63, 66
Freund, Gisele 144
Friday, Jonathan 18
Fried, Michael 145
Friedlander, Lee 113
Frith, Francis 14 , 21
Frizot, Michel 2, 16
Frosh, Paul 68-9
Fulton, Hamish 135
Fulton, W 61, 76; (and Mullaly,W S): ‘You Press the Button, We Do The Rest’ 61
Futurism 129

G

Galella, Ron 174, 176
gallery exhibitions 42, 73, 102, 111-14
Galton, Francis 47, 103 ,104
Garbo, Greta 171, 174,175
Gardner, Ava 1 73
Gates, Bill 74, 75
Gaultier, Theophile 168
Gay, Peter 7
gaze, the 32, 54, 56, 57, 63, 154, 155 
Getty Images 69
Giacobbi, Andrea 162; Simplex Concordia 161 Gilbert and George 13
Gill, A A 178
‘girl power’ 55
Golden Age of Celebrity,The: 167 , 171, 172, 173,177,178, 183, 184
Goldin, Nan 112, 165
Goody, Jade 179
Google Earth 105; StreetView 105GQ magazine 183
grabbed digital image 18, 179
graffiti 71-2
Graham, Paul 43, 112
Graner, Charles 119
Green, David 16, 103
Greenberg, Clement 10, 11, 23;
‘Modernist Painting’ 10
Grierson, John 108
grunge, grunge aesthetic 157, 158
Gunthert, Andre 121
Gursky,Andreas 74, 114, 141, 142; 99 Cent II Diptych 74

H

Haeffner , Nick 95
Hall, Stuart 70
Hamilton, Peter 104, 105, 106
handbooks 89-90, 91
Hargreaves, Roger 69, 168 , 170
Harman, Sabrina 119
Harper’s Bazaar 149, 165
Harrison, Charles 10
Harrison, Martin 149,150,151 ,153, 163; Appearances 154, 164
Harry, Prince 175
Hart, Janice 23, 25, 89
Hawarden, Lady Clementina 125
Heat magazine 180, 181, 182
Hebdige, Dick 156, 157
Hello! magazine 178
Hemm.ings, David 153
Henry, Karen 145
Here Comes the New Photographer!130
Here Is NewYork: A Democracy of Photographs 121-2
‘heroin chic’ 4, 159
Herschel, Sir John 8, 82
Hilliard, John; Camera Recording Its Own Condition 136; Causes of Death136
Hilton, Paris 182
Hinde, John 132
Hine, Lewis 107, 108, 132
Hirsch, Julia 82, 94, 95
histories of photography 6, 24, 83-4
Hjelmslev, Louis 34
Hofer, Candida 141
Hokusai, Katsushika 143
Hole 157
Holland, Patricia 72, 84 , 87, 89, 96, 171
Horkheimer, Max 64
Horst, Horst P 150, 162
Hot Stars magazine 179
How We Are exhibition 123
Hughes, Jabez 124,144
humanism 113
Hunter, Tom 143 ; Way Home, The143
Hussein, Saddam 119
Hutchinson, Elizabeth 83
Huxley,T H 106
Huyssen,Andreas 134
hyper-context 45


I-P

I

iconic sign 15
i-D magazine 156,157,160
identification 50, 51
ideology 12, 35-6, 43, 53, 64, 67, 68, 70, 89, 138, 156; of individualism 38
image banks 45, 68, 70
Imperial War Museum 117
Impossible Image, The 161
incorporation of subcultures 156
Independent on Sunday, Themagazine 163
indexical sign (indexicality) 13-16, 103, 138, 186
individualism (individuality) 10, 46
Industrial Revolution 7, 168
Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique 7
‘instant check’ 95-6
Internet 80, 97, 118, 119; memes 183
interpellation 64
intertextuality 139
iPhone 26, 79, 96
iPod 26, 28, 97
Iverson, Margaret 18-20

J

Jackson, Alison 175
Jackson, Michael 181
Jacobsen, Colin 44
Jagger, Mick 176
Jarche, James 52-3
Jarecke, Kenneth 118
Jeffrey, Ian 76, 142, 1 50
Jenkins, Lee 161
Jobling, Paul 148-9, 155,159, 161-2
John Hinde Studios 132
Johnston, Patricia 67-8, 90
Johnston, Steve 156
Jourdan, Charles 153
JPEG 27

K

Kember, Sarah 105
Kennedy, Liam 118
Kennel, Sarah 91
Kennington, Jill 152 , 153
Kenyon, Dave 77, 84, 85, 86, 89, 95
Killip, Chris 43
King, Graham 83, 84-5
King, Martin Luther, Junior 99
Kircher, Athanasius 6, 7
Kismaric, Susan 43, 150, 159, 160, 164
Klein, Steven 158
Klein, William 151
Knight, Nick 158; It’s a Jungle Out There 162; Laura de Palma 161
Kodak 62, 63, 75, 76-7, 78, 83, 96, 126
‘Kodak Culture’ 87-92, 98, 100
Kodak Girl 76, 88
Kodak Moment 76, 91
Kohler, Izzi von 163
Korman, Greg 171
Kosuth, Joseph 137; One and Three Chairs 136
Kotchemidova, Christina 68, 90, 91
Kotz, Liz 39,137
Krauss, Rosalind 12, 16, 49, 137,138, 139
Kriebel, Sabine T 12, 13
Kristeva, Julia 116, 159
Kruger, Barbara 138, 139, 140; You Are Not Yourself 139
Kuhn, Annette 94

L

La Dolce Vita 174
Lacan, Jacques 50, 63,116, 154, 155
LaChapelle, David 160
lack 48
Lady Gaga 183
Lamprey, J H 106
Lamsveerde, Inez van 161, 162, 163
landscape 73,117,134,141,142
Lange, Dorothea 75, 108-9; Imigrant Mother 109
Langford, Martha 93, 99
‘late photography’ 117
Lau, Grace 56
Learning and Skills Council 178
Leica 109, 130
Lennon, John 176, 177
‘lesbian chic’ 55
Levine, Sherrie 138, 139
Leyson, Ted 174,175
Life magazine 109, 115, 174
limited edition photographs 74
Linked Ring 126, 127
Lister, Martin 21
Livingstone, David 169
Long, J J 12, 17, 58, 59
Long, Richard 135
looks 51-2
Lorant, Stefan 109, 113
Loreck, Hanne 159
love 26, 95
Love magazine 158
Love, Courtney 157, 160

M

MacCannell, Dean 88
Machin, David 69
Madonna 168
magazines 3, 9, 42, 67, 68, 73, 89, ’91, 109,112,113,117,119,130, 147, 149-51; celebrity gossip 168, 179-81 ; fashion 149
Magnum 44, 45, 111
Man About Town (Town) magazine 151
Man of Aran 108
Man Ray 132, 150; Noir et Blanche 150, 164
Mandel, Mike 114
Manet, Edouard 143
Manovich, Lev 22, 26, 99
Marien, Mary Warner 2
marketing 61, 72, 73
Martin, Rosy 94
Marx, Karl 36, 65, 66

Marxism 12, 94, 108 mass-marketing 75-8, 87
mass reproduction 9-10, 170,171 ,172
Master Photo Finishers of America 91
Matadin, Vinoodh l 61 , 162, 163
materiality 3, 23, 25, 26
Maull and Pollybank 169
Mavor, Carol 140
McCartney, Paul 18
McCormick, Carlo 176
McCullin,Don 115,116,151,153
McQueen, Alexander 162
McRobbie, Angela 178
medium specificity 138
memory 87-92
memory cards 27
memory sticks 27
Metz, Christian 28, 48-9, 79
Meyerowitz, Joel 118
middle-classes 7, 8, 39, 44, 85, 86
Millais, John Everett 126, 143; Ophelia 126
Miller, Arthur 172
Mills, Heather 18
Minnelli, Liza 176
Mintel 78
mirror phase (mirror stage) 50, 63 , 116,154
Mitchell, William J 21, 22, 161
mobile phones see camera phones
moblogs 98
‘Modelmakers’ 151, 153
modernism 3, 5,9-11,83, 127-34, 170
modernity 10, 46, 130
Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo 31, 130
Monroe, Marilyn 171-2, 173, 182
montage (in cinema) 42; see also photomontage
Moon, Sarah 154
Moore, Julianne 147, 164
mortification of celebrity 181, 182
Moss, Kate 147,157,159, 160, 164, 173
Muir, Robin 171
Mullaly, W S 76; (and Fulton, W): ‘You Press the Button, We Do The Rest’ 61
Mulvey, Laura 17, 52, 53, 54, 56, 155
Munchner Illustriete Presse 109
Munkacsi, Martin 150
Museum of Modern Art, New York (MoMA) 10,43,44, 112,113 ,123, 129,130,131,132,164
Muybridge, Edwaerd 14, 18
MySpace 183

N

Nadar (Gaspard-Felix Tournachon) 105, 168
Nairne, Sandy 173
NASA 20
National Gallery, London 123, 143
National Geographic 21, 22
National Identity Scheme (UK) 102
National Portrait Gallery, London 160, 164
nature 5, 7-11, 13, 27-9, 62, 66, 67, 84, 142, 185, 186
negative/ positive process 9
neo-realism 151
‘New Man’ 155
New Objectivity 130, 141
New York Times 120
Newhall, Beaumont 83 , 131
Newton, Helmut 56, 153 , 154; Self Portrait with Wife June and Models, Vogue Studio, Paris 54-5
Newton, June 54-5, 56
Nguyen Ngoc Loan 115-16
Niagara 171
Nicholson, Jack 174
Nicke.l, Douglas R 83, 87, 131
Nicol, Michelle 144
Niepce, Nicephore 8, 72, 77
Nirvana 157
Nochlin, Linda 158
‘Nokia Moments’ 96, 98
Norfolk, Simon 117
nostalgia 92
Now magazine 180, 181

O

Obama, Barack 99
objectivity 4,101,102, 107-10, 115, 122, 186
Observer, The 151
O’Doherty, Brian 131
Oedipus complex 47, 48
Ogden, Charles Kay 36
OK! magazine 178, 179
One Hour Photo (2002) 81, 82, 95
online social networking 97-100
orality 93
Orvell, Miles 113
Other 50-1, 106
Owens, Craig 140

P

packaging 90, 91
Panopticon 104
Panzer, Mary 109,120,121
paparazzi 2
paparazzi photography 75, 173-7
Paparazzo 174
Parker, Colonel Tom 173
Parker-Bowles, Camilla 175
Parr, Martin 3 7, 38, 39, 41, 44, 45, 112,158,164; Coffee Morning 42;Conservative ‘Midsummer Madness’ Party 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45; Cost ef Living, The 42, 43; England 37; Ooh La La 37
Pasolini, Pier 164
Paster, James E 92
Payne, Lewis 17, 102
Peirce, Charles Sanders 14-15, 16, 22, 32,34, 36
Penn, Irving 150
perfomative, performativity 19, 20, 95, 165
Performance Art 163-5
Perthuis, Karen de 162
phallus 48
Phillips, Christopher 11, 12, 113,131
photobooks 42, 102, 111-14
PhotoBox 79, 97
photo-essay 44
Photogene (app) 96
photograph albums 22, 75, 93-5, 99
photographs: as images 26-7; as objects 23-6
photographic meaning 3, 31-59, 99, 1OO, 107, 139-40
photography: culture of 11-13, 29; duality and 13 , 186; nature of 9-11 , 29; origins of the word 5
photography auctions 73
photography degree courses 73
photography theory 12, 31, 46
photo-investigation 137
photojournalism 2, 18, 75, 107-1 0, 112, 113, l 57
photomontage 22, 42, 43, 49, 130
‘photo-mosaic’ 169
photons 16
Photoshop 96, 183
photo-texts 136
Phototherapy (Photo Therapy) 82, 93-5
phrenology 103
physiognomy 103
Picasso, Pablo: Demoiselles d’Avignon, Les 129
Pictorialism 4, 74, 123 , 1 24-7, 129, 132,142, 143
Picture Post magazine 109
Pictures exhibition 138
Piggott, Marcus 158
Pinney, Christopher 87, 107
Piper, Adrian, 135
Polaroid 95-6, 176
police 104
Pollolk, Griselda 55
Pollock, Jackson 133 
polysemous, polysemic images 37, 69, 99, 140
Pop magazine 158
Pop Art 134, 138
Pop Idol 178
pornography 24, 73
portrait photography (portraiture) 4, 72-3, 82, 102-5, 141, 142
poses 52
positivism 105-6
postcards 132
‘post-human’ culture 186
postmodern photography 165
postmodernism 3, 5, 11-13, 124, 137-41, 144
‘post-photography’ 22, 161-3, 186
‘post-postmodernism’ 13
preconscious, the 46, 47
pre-millenial fashion photograph 161 -3
Pre-Raphaelite painting 126
Presley, Elvis 171, 173
Prince, Richard 138,139; Untitled (Cowboy) 140
projection 6, 7, 88, 89
propaganda 109
‘proto-photographers’ 8
pseudo-expressionism 138
pseudo-individuality 64
psychoanalysis 3 , 12,46-53, 68, 94, 137
punctum 57-9 
punk 156, 157


Q-Z

Q

quantum physics 186
Queen magazine 151

R

Radner, Hilary 149, 150, 152
Ramamurthy, Anandi 61, 75
Raney, Karen 144
Rankin 168; Hungry? 158
Reagan, Ronald 139
‘real fantasies’ 90
‘real, the’ 114
realism 4, 5, 147, 158
Rear Window 51
Reas, Paul 112
Redmond, Sean 169
referent 36
Reinhardt, Mark 118
Rejlander, Oscar 22, 125, 142
relay 40, 41, 63, 64, 68, 150
Renger-Patzsch, Albert 130
repression 4 7
Respini, Eva 150, 159, 160 , 164
Reveal 180
rhetoric of the image 34-8
Richards, Ivor Armstrong 36
Riis, Jacob 107, 108, 132
Ristelhueber, Sophie 118; Aftermath (Fait) 117 Ritchin, Freel 20, 21, 22, 28, 45, 116, 120,121, 186
Ritts, Herb 71, 155
Roberts, John 113 , 135, 136
Robins, Kevin 29
Robinson, Henry Peach 142, 144;Lady of Shalott, The 125-6
Rodchenko, Alexander 130
Rojek, Chris 172,178,179, 181
Romanek, Mark 81
Rose, Gillian 13, 43 ; Visual Methodologies 39, 55
Rosenblum, Barbara 24
Rosler,Martha 107, 108, 114, 116;Bowery in Two Inadequate Systems, The 137
Royal Academy, London 141
Royal Anthropological Institute 106
Royal Photographic Society (RPS) 124
Rubinstein, Daniel 78, 96, 98, 120
Ruff,Thomas 141,142
Ruscha, Ed 134, 135

S

Sagne, Jean 168
Said, Edward 106
Salaman, Naomi: What She Wants56
Samsung 78
Sander, August 141
Sarony, Napoleon 169
Sassoon, Joanna 26, 28
Saussure, Ferdinand de 14-15, 32-3
‘scene completion’ software 96
Scharf, Aaron 124, 134
Schmid, Joachim 93; Archiv # 44090
Schnabel, Julian 140
scopophilia 50, 51, 57
Scorci, Elio 173
screens 6,23 ,26,28,75,78-80,95-7
Searle, Adrian 57
Seawright, Paul 117; Hidden 117, 118; Minefield 117; Valley 117, 118
Seccharioli, Tazio 174
Second Life 110, 163 Sekula,Allan 41, 103, 104, 114, 133
self (see Other) 50-1
semiotics/semiology 3, 14-15, 32-4, 46,49,63, 139
Sensation exhibition 141
Shakespeare, William: Hamlet 126
Sherman, Cindy 138,140,165
Shore, Stephen 112, 142; Nature of Photographs, The 11
Shrimpton, Jean 151, 152
sign 15-16, 32-4, 110
signification 3 2, 110
signified 32-4
signifier 32-4
simulacrum, simulacra 27
Situationism 70, 138
‘size zero’ fashion models 158
Slater, Don 13, 61, 75, 76, 77, 87, 89, 97,99, 100
slideshows 88-9, 99
Sluis, Katrina 78, 96, 98, 120
Smedley, Elliot 157, 160
Smith, Graham 43
Smith, W Eugene 111
snapshooters 77
‘snapshot aesthetic’ 112
‘snapshot’ origins of the word 82
snapshots 2, 3, 20 , 61, 80, 81-100, 112
social Darwinist evolutionary theory 106
social networking 2, 97-1 00, 102, 105
Society of Arts, London 124
Solomon-Godeau,Abigail 12, 13, 24, 56,10 7,10 8,114,126, 133-4, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141
Sontag, Susan 14, 15, 1 14, 116, 121, 165
Sorrenti, Davide 159 , 164
Sorrenti, Mario 164
Spears, Britney 181
spectatorship 23-4, 53, 56
Spence, Jo 94, 95; Beyond the Family Album exhibition 94-5
sports photography 75
Star magazine 180, 182
Stehli, Jemima 56-7; Self Portrait with Karen 56, 57; Strip 57
Steichen, Edward 67, 90, 112, 113, 126-7, 131, 149-50 ; Hand of Man, The 127, 1 2 8; Pond – Moonlight, The 74, 127; Self Portrait With Brush and Palette, Paris 127
Stengel, Richard 100
stereography 24, 73
Stern, Bert 173
Stewart, Lindsay 73, 74
Stieglitz, Alfred 73, 127-9, 131, 132-3; Car Horses 128; Equivalents 133; Steerage The, 128, 129
still life painting 35
stock photography 45
Stokes, Phillip 87, 93
‘straight’ photography 4, 127-30, 132-3
‘straight up’ fashion photography 156
Strand, Paul 129, 132
Street and Studio exhibition 123
street photography 109-10, 113
Struth,Thomas 141
Studio 54 176
studios 72, 73, 82
studium 57-9
Sturken, Marita 7, 10, 12, 66, 70
subcultures 156-7
subjectivity 4, 7, 101, 102, 108, 1 10-14, 121, 122,127, 139,186
sublime 142
subvertising 69 -72
Sultan, Larry 114
Sunday Times Magazine, The 109, 115
Sunday Times, The 151
Surrealism 49, 110, 129, 132, 150
surveillance 4, 102-5
Sutton, Damian 78, 96, 97, 98
suture 53
symbolic sign 15
Szarkowski, John 10-11, 13, 14, 28, 113; Mirrors and Windows exhibition 133-4, 138; Photographer’s Eye, The 10, 11, 12, 23, 82, 83, 84, 102 , 131

T

tableaux 124, 126,142, 144, 165
Tagg, John 12, 13,43, 102, 104, 106;Burden of Representation, The 13
tagging 46
Talbot, William Henry Fox 7-8, 101;Articles of China 101 , 114; Pencil of Nature, The 8-9, 101
Tate 144
Tate Britain 123
Tate Gallery 135-6
Tate Modern 123
Taylor, John 116 , 121
Taylor-Wood, Sam: Self Portrait Suspended 20, 21
technological determinism 6
Teller, Juergen 157, 158, 160 , 182
Tennyson,Alfred, Lord 125, 1 69-70, 1 84 ; Charge ef the Light Brigade, The 11 5, 169; Lady of Shalott, The 169
terrorism 4,10 2, 119 , 121
text see words
Thatcher, Margaret 43
that-has-been‘ 17, 20, 92
Theorem 164
Third Summer of Love, The‘ 157
‘this-never-was‘ 20
this-will-be‘ 20
Thorne, Scott 176
Tillmans,Wolfgang 157, 158
Timberlake, Justin 181
Time magazine 99-100, 153 time 5, 17-20,
to-be-looked-at‘ 51, 56, 155
tourism and travel 87-92
Tournachon, Gaspard-Felix see Nada 
Town magazine 155
transient commodities 78-80
‘transient photography’ 28-9, 186
‘trophy’ photographs 119
Turbeville, Deborah 154
Turner, Joseph Mallord William 135 
Turner Prize 112
Twiggy (Lesley Hornby) 151

U

uncanny, the 49
unconscious, the 46-9, 51, 52, 63, 94
upper-class 73, 150
Urry, John 88
USSR in Construction 130
Ut, Huynh Cong ‘Nick’ 74, 116
utilitarian photographs 132
utopia 162

V

van der Zee, James 58
Vermeer, Jan 7, 143
‘vernacular photography’ 83
Vertigo 51
Vestberg, Nina Lager 23, 25
victim photography 114
Victoria & Albert Museum (V&A) 136
viewer, position of 50-7
‘vintage’ prints 74
Visionaire 161
visual culture 39
visual pleasure 3, 50, 51
Vogue magazine 56, 147,149,150,151, 153,1 54, 157,159, 160,161, 165, 173
voyeurism 50, 55
VU magazine 109

W

W magazine 147, 164
‘waif’ 152, 159
Waitrose 64, 65, 66, 67, 69
Walker, Ian 107,111,113,114, 117
Walker, John A 38, 46, 175
Wall, Jeff 114, 143; Sudden Gust of Wind (Afier Hokusai), A 143
war 115-19
Warhol,Andy 134,175,176,179; Double Elvis 171 ; Triple Elvis 171
Warner, Marina 93
Watney, Simon 77
Wavell, General Archibald 52
Wearing, Gillian 141
Web 1.0 96
Web 2.0 96
Weber, Bruce 71, 155
websites 42, 45, 98, 99
Weegee (Arthur Fellig) 110
Weiser, Judy 93
Welch,Edward 12, 17,58,59
Wells, Liz 2
West,Nancy Martha 62,8 8, 90, 91 
Weston, Edward 133
‘white cube’ galleries 131
White, Minor 133, 134
Wilde, Oscar 169, 170
Williams, Linda 24, 25
Williams, Raymond: Keywords 9
Williams, Robbie 175
Williams, Val 44-5, 154
Williamson, Judith 63, 64,66, 67, 69, 85,89
Wilson, Stuart 179
Winehouse, Amy 181
Winogrand, Garry 113
Winston, Brian 6, 111
Wolfman Report 83
Wombell, Paul 20

Wood, Paul 10 words 38-41, 67-8
working-class 77, 81,151,158
Wyndham, Francis 151

XYZ

X Factor, The 179

Yevonde, Madame 73 Young British Artists (YBAs) 14 I

Zhijun, Qian l 83-4
Zuromskis, Catherine 90, 91, 119